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Indian Polity Notes for UPSC Prelims and Mains Examination

One of the key topics for the UPSC Civil Services Exam is Indian politics. All three levels of the Civil Services exam have included questions that directly relate to the constitutional framework. This article contains a topic-by-topic table of the curriculum for Indian politics for the UPSC, which may greatly assist you in covering Indian polity. You can also download our micro themes syllabus PDF of Indian polity to keep your UPSC preparation syllabus focused.

Indian Polity Notes for UPSC Prelims and Mains

UPSC Indian Polity: The entire constitutional framework and the operation of our political system are encapsulated in Indian politics. To make your preparation easier, we have divided the Indian Polity themes included in the UPSC notification into smaller subtopics. To prepare for the UPSC exam, go over each of these topics in depth. Indian Polity is a vast and complex subject, but there are a few key concepts that are essential for understanding the Indian political system. Here is a brief overview of some of the most important Indian polity notes:

Constitutional Framework Indian Polity Notes

Fundamental structure and principles of the Indian Constitution. These notes typically cover key topics such as the Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties, the three branches of government (Legislature, Executive, Judiciary), and the federal system in India.

Evolution of the Constitution

Evolution of the Constitution is a captivating journey through the transformative phases of India’s supreme legal document, the Constitution. Spanning over seven decades since its adoption in 1950, this evolution reflects the dynamic nature of Indian democracy.

It encompasses amendments, landmark court rulings, and societal changes that have collectively shaped the Constitution into a living, breathing testament to the nation’s growth and evolving values.

Understanding this evolution is not only a key aspect of legal and political studies but also a fascinating exploration of India’s history and its continuous quest for justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

Making of Constitution

Making of Constitution is an extraordinary chapter in India’s history, marked by visionary leaders and intense deliberations. It refers to the meticulous crafting of the Indian Constitution, which commenced in 1947 under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and a Constituent Assembly comprising diverse voices from across the nation.

This monumental task led to a comprehensive document that laid the foundation for India’s democratic principles, reflecting the aspirations and values of its people. The process of making the Constitution is a testament to the nation’s commitment to democracy, justice, and equality, and it continues to be a source of inspiration for the world.

Features of the Indian Constitution

Features of the Indian Constitution encapsulate the distinctive characteristics that set India’s fundamental legal framework apart. Notable features include its federal structure with a strong center, a comprehensive Bill of Rights ensuring fundamental freedoms, a parliamentary system of government, and the principle of secularism.

Indian Constitution also embraces principles of social justice, equality, and inclusivity, making it one of the world’s most extensive and adaptable governing documents. Its resilience and ability to accommodate changes while upholding core values remain a testament to its enduring relevance in shaping India’s democratic journey.

Indian Union and its Territory


Fundamental Rights

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

Fundamental Duties

Amendment of Constitution

System of Government

Executive Bodies

Union Legislature

Parliamentary Devices, Procedures and Working

Parliamentary Groups and Committees

Emergency Provisions In Indian Constitution

State Government and its Machineries 

Central State Relations

Union Territories and Special Areas

Local Government

Supreme Court

High Court and Subordinate Court

Other Judicial Bodies and Services

Constitutional Bodies

Non-Constitutional Bodies

Political Dynamics

Important Bills, Laws, and Acts


International Relations

Indian Polity Current Affairs for UPSC & PSC

UPSC Syllabus For Indian Polity

Indian Polity Syllabus for UPSC: The Civil Services Exam includes a section on politeness. Both the Prelims and Mains exams cover Indian politics. 16 questions from the UPSC Polity curriculum were directly asked in the 2020 Prelims. All three Civil Services Examination phases included questions on Polity.

Indian Polity for UPSC Prelims

The UPSC Prelims Syllabus includes information on Indian politics, and we have included the UPSC Polity Syllabus 2023 for the IAS Prelims Exam below. Indian polity is an important subject for the UPSC Civil Services Examination, both Prelims and Mains. It is a vast and complex subject, but there are a few key topics that are particularly important for the UPSC Prelims syllabus.

  • Polity and Governance in India
  • Government of India
  • Constitution of India
  • Indian Political System
  • Local Government
  • Indian Parliament
  • Indian Judiciary
  • Fundamental Rights and Duties
  • Centre-State Relations

Indian Polity Syllabus for UPSC Mains

The Indian Polity component is part of the General Studies Paper-II of the UPSC Mains Syllabus. The UPSC Polity Syllabus 2023 for the IAS Mains Exam must be read by candidates before they begin the course of study.

  • Constitution of India
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts
  • Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act
  • Government policies and interventions
  • Health, Education, and Human Resources
  • Development Processes and the development industry
  • Issues relating to Poverty and hunger
  • Role of civil services in a Democracy
  • Important aspects of governance.

Indian Polity Syllabus for UPSC Topic-Wise

Here you can check the Indian Polity Syllabus 2023 in detail:

Topic Wise UPSC Polity Syllabus 2023
Important Polity Topics Polity Sub-topic
Constitutional Framework
  • Historical Background
  • Fundamental Duties
  • Amendment of the Constitution
  • Basic Structure
  • Constitutional Development
  • Making of the Constitution
  • Features of the Constitution
  • Preamble of India
  • The Union & Its Territories
  • Citizenship
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Directive Principles of State Policy
System of Government
  • Parliamentary System
  • Inter-state Relations
  • Federal System
  • Centre-state Relations
State Government
  • Governor of India
  • State Council of Ministers
  • State Legislature
  • Chief Minister
  • High Courts
  • Subordinate Courts
  • Special Provisions for Some States
Central Government
  • President of India
  • Vice-President
  • Parliament
  • Central Council of Ministers
  • Cabinet Committee
  • Parliamentary Committee & Forums
  • Supreme Court
  • Prime Minister
Constitutional Bodies
  • Election Commission
  • Comptroller & Auditor General of India
  • National Commission for SCs
  • National Commission for STs
  • Attorney General of India
  • Advocate General of State
  • Union Public Service Commission
  • State PCS
  • Finance Commission
Union Territories & Local Government
  • Union Territories
  • Scheduled & Tribal Areas
  • Panchayati Raj System
  • Municipalities
Non-Constitutional Bodies
  • Planning Commission
  • National Development Council
  • Lokpal & Lokayukta
  • NITI Aayog
  • Central Information Commission
  • Central Vigilance Commission
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • State Human Rights Commission
  • Central Bureau of Investigation
Emergency Provisions
  • National Emergency
  • Role of President in the Time of Emergency
  • Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
  • Financial Emergency
  • 44th Amendment Act
  • Effects and Implications of Emergency
  • Revoking Emergency
  • President’s Rule or State Emergency
  • Cooperative Societies
  • Official Language
  • Tribunals
Current Affairs
  • Important Schemes (both Central and State)

Indian Polity Books For UPSC Preparation

You can refer this book for this for the UPSC Preparation :-

UPSC Books for Indian Polity
Indian Polity
  • Democratic Politics – I and II – NCERT class 9th and 10th respectively (only cursory reading needed)
  • Indian Constitution at Work – NCERT class 11th
  • Indian Constitution by M Laxmikanth



How can I study Indian polity?

The major tip is to focus on how to prepare polity for UPSC including reading NCERT books from IX to XII to have better insights into the topics as the NCERT books are more lucid and comprehensive.

Is polity easy for UPSC?

It depends on the understanding of the candidates, although it is a static subject with some technical aspects.

What do you mean by the term polity?

Polity refers to a political group of any size or shape — it can be a government, a state, a country, or even a social group.

Is Laxmikant enough for UPSC?

Laxmikant is essential for UPSC Mains preparation, but it is not sufficient.

What is difference between polity and constitution?

Constitution is a formal legal document defining the basic structure of the system/organisation/country. Polity is the constitution in run, i.e actual functioning of the constitution.

Which website is best for polity for UPSC?

Study IQ is without a doubt the best site for preparing Polity and other subjects as asked in UPSC.

Can a very weak student crack UPSC?

Yes there are several aspirants who were “average” students and yet cleared the exam proving that you need not be a topper to crack the IAS Exam.

How many questions come from Indian polity in UPSC?

On an average 18 to 20 questions are asked in UPSC from Polity

How much time is required to prepare Polity for UPSC?

At maximum 1 to 2 months are required to cover the entire syllabus of Polity

Is NCERT needed for UPSC polity?

Yes NCERT strengthened the foundation of Polity as a subject.

Which subjects are included in the UPSC General Studies Paper 2?

The GS Paper 2 includes Polity and Governance, International Relations and Social Justice.

How to start preparing for Indian polity?

One should first go through the Previous Year Questions for understanding the demand of Polity as a subject in UPSC Exam.