Home   »   Indian Polity   »   Electoral system in India

Electoral System in India, Feature, Types and Method

Electoral System in India

Elections in India have been the largest electoral process in the entire world since the first general elections in 1952. Because India is the largest democracy in the world and has a diverse population in terms of culture, language, religion, and ethnicity, voting there is more difficult. In India, many elections of various kinds are held at all levels of government.

The Electoral System in India is an important part of Indian Polity which is an important subject in UPSC Syllabus. Students can also go for UPSC Mock Test to get more accuracy in their preparations.

Electoral System in India Background

If elections are to actually matter in a democratic society and live up to expectations, it is crucial that the methods employed to conduct them are acceptable. Only after carefully examining the approaches and taking into account both their advantages and disadvantages can their applicability be decided.

India has a parliamentary system with a split of power between the federal government and the states, according to the Constitution. The ceremonial head of state and ultimate commander-in-chief of all Indian armed forces is India’s President.

Everyone has the right to cast a secret ballot in the general elections for the parliament because India is a democracy. As a group, members of parliament are elected representatives with the potential to hold office for a period of five years.

Electoral System in India Features

Part XV of the Constitution, Articles 324 through 329, deals with election-related provisions. According to Article 324 of the Indian Constitution, the authority only applies to the Election Commission (EC) of India. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and other Election Commissioners are chosen by the President.

Geographic constituencies within India each have a single member. Each constituency will have a single electoral roll for both the Parliamentary and Assembly elections, and no one will be included or excluded based on their religion, race, caste, or sex. Each person who is an Indian citizen and has achieved the voting age may register to vote. An exemption may be allowed if the person is ineligible because of “non-residence, unsoundness of mind, crime, or corrupt or illegal practice.”

The Constitution grants Parliament the power to enact laws addressing constituency delimitation, the development of electoral rolls, and other connected issues. Additionally, courts are prohibited from meddling in electoral procedures by the Constitution. No law governing the apportionment of seats or the defining of constituencies is subject to legal dispute.

Elections to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies in India use the First Past the Post voting method. Constituencies are established throughout the entire nation. By placing a mark against the candidate of their choice on an electronic voting machine, voters choose just one candidate. The candidate who receives the most votes is proclaimed the winner.

Electoral System in India Types

India is a democratic, secular, socialist, and independent republic. The idea of democracy as it is expressed in the Constitution is that the people will be represented in the federal government and state legislatures through the electoral process. Elections are held in India for the following positions: Members of the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha:

  • State legislative council members,
  • Individuals who are a part of state legislatures
  • Participants in local governing bodies
  • A by-election is held when the incumbent of a certain constituency passes away, resigns, or is declared ineligible.

Electoral System in India Method

Elections provide every adult citizen of the country with the chance to participate in the process of forming the government. These elections are held under the tenet of universal adult franchise, which grants any Indian who is 18 years of age or older the right to vote, regardless of caste, color, religion, sex, or place of birth.

First Past the Post and Proportional Representation are the two election-processing procedures utilized in India.

First Past the Post System

Elections are held under this system in each constituency chosen by the Election Commission, and the person with the most votes is declared the winner. Both the Lok Sabha and each Vidhan Sabha are chosen through first-past-the-post voting. In each constituency, voters may select just one candidate to cast a ballot for; the one with the most votes is proclaimed the victor.

Proportional Representation System

The number of votes is distributed proportionately among the legislators under this arrangement. It works effectively for a multi-party system like the one used in India, where each party is given consideration regardless of how big it is or how many votes it obtains overall.

Electoral Process of India

Notification for Election

The election process officially starts when, on the recommendation of the Election Commission, the President in the case of the Lok Sabha and the Governor in the case of the State Assembly issues a notification for the election. Seven days are given for candidates to submit their nominations.

Filing of Nomination

The candidate’s name, age, postal address, and electoral roll serial number must be included on the nomination document, which must be presented in the correct manner. The candidate must be properly proposed and seconded by at least two registered voters from the affected constituency.

Deposition of Security Deposit

When submitting their nomination, each applicant is asked to submit a security deposit. The security deposit is forfeited if the candidate doesn’t win at least 1/6 of the valid votes cast.

Scrutiny and Withdrawal

The Returning Officer reviews each nomination form she receives on the day determined by the Election Commission. This is done to ensure that all paperwork is completed in line with the approved process and that the required security deposit is included. The returning officer has the authority to reject a nomination paper. The second day after the nomination papers have been reviewed is the final day for candidates to withdraw.

Election Campaign

Campaigning is the procedure a candidate uses to persuade voters to support him instead of the opposition. All recognized national and regional parties can now run their election campaigns for free on state-owned electronic media, including as All India Radio (AIR) and Doordarshan.

Electoral System in India UPSC

An election is a process where voters regularly choose their representatives and have the option to remove them at any moment. Elections are a process of choosing representatives for different government offices by utilising ballots. Elections are the foundation of democracy. Representatives must be chosen through elections. In most democracies, the people are in charge through their representatives. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

Sharing is caring!

Electoral system in India FAQs

Which electoral system was adopted in India?

The Constitution of India adopted a Parliamentary form of government.

What is the system of election in India?

India is divided into different areas for the purpose of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. The voters who live in an area elect one representative. For Lok Sabha elections, India is divided into 543 constituencies.

What is the electoral formula India?

The total value of votes of all the States added together is divided by the total number of elected members of Parliament (Lok Sabha 543 + Rajya Sabha 233) to get the value of votes per each Member of Parliament.

Which were the first electoral reforms in India?

The Representation of the People Act (RPA) of 1951 provided the first set of rules for the conduct of elections to the Houses of Parliament and State Legislatures. Over the years the RPA has been amended to reflect changing circumstances.

What is proportional electoral system in India?

The mixed-member proportional system combines single member plurality voting (SMP), also known as first-past-the-post (FPTP), with party-list PR in a way that the overall result of the election is supposed to be proportional.

Download your free content now!


We have received your details!

We'll share General Studies Study Material on your E-mail Id.

Download your free content now!

We have already received your details!

We'll share General Studies Study Material on your E-mail Id.

Incorrect details? Fill the form again here

General Studies PDF

Thank You, Your details have been submitted we will get back to you.