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Speaker of Lok Sabha, History, Election, Role, Duties and Removal

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha serves as the presiding officer and the highest authority of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India’s Parliament. The Speaker is generally elected during the first meeting of the Lok Sabha following general elections and serves a term of five years. The Speaker of Lok Sabha is an important part of Indian Polity which an important subject in UPSC Syllabus.

Speaker of Lok Sabha

The highest power in the Parliament’s lower house is held by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The lower house of the Indian Parliament is known as Lok Sabha, or the House of the People. In Article 93 of the Indian Constitution, the speaker of the Lok Sabha is referred to as the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. Om Birla is the Lok Sabha’s current speaker. Since 2021, he has served as the lower house’s 17th speaker.

 Speaker of Lok Sabha
Title Speaker of Lok Sabha
Role Presiding officer of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), the lower house of India’s Parliament
Duties Maintains order during debates, decides on points of order, represents the House externally
Appointment Elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves
Term Holds office during the tenure of the Lok Sabha, unless they resign or are removed
Authority Exercises administrative and disciplinary powers within the House
Salary and Benefits Entitled to a salary, allowances, and other perks as determined by the government
Political Neutrality Expected to renounce all party affiliations upon taking office

Speaker of Lok Sabha History

The Speaker of Lok Sabha Lok Sabha history dates back to 1919. Much later, the phrases “Lok Sabha Speaker” and “Deputy Speaker” were introduced. Here is a brief overview of its past. The Indian constitution, parliamentary conventions, and the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business of the Lok Sabha grant the Speaker of the Lok Sabha a number of powers.

The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, which followed the Government of India Act 1919, introduced the Speaker and Deputy Speaker institutions. Up until 1947, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker were addressed by the President. The Central Legislative Assembly’s first speaker and deputy speaker were chosen to serve as Frederick Whyte and Sachidanand Sinha. In 1925, Vithalbhai J. Patel is credited as being the Central Legislative Assembly’s first Speaker.

After Independence, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar served as Speaker from 15 May 1952 until 27 February 1956. In the Indian Parliament, Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar held the positions of first Deputy Speaker and first Speaker of the Lok Sabha. All sessions in the Lower House of the Parliament are presided over by a Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Speaker of Lok Sabha List

Below given is the complete List of all the speakers of Lok Sabha after independence till date. Students can see the List to know all about the Speaker of Lok Sabha:

No. Speaker
(Birth-Death)
Term of office  
From To Period  
1 G. V. Mavalankar
(1888–1956)
15 May
1952
27 February
1956
3 years, 288 days  
2 M. A. Ayyangar
(1891–1978)
8 March
1956
4 April
1957
6 years, 22 days  
5 April
1957
31 March
1962
 
3 Hukam Singh
(1895–1983)
17 April
1962
16 March
1967
4 years, 333 days  
4 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
(1913–1996)
17 March
1967
19 July
1969
2 years, 124 days  
5 Gurdial Singh Dhillon
(1915–1992)
8 August
1969
17 March
1971
6 years, 110 days
22 March
1971
1 December
1975
 
6 Bali Ram Bhagat
(1922–2011)
15 January
1976
25 March
1977
1 year, 69 days  
(4) Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
(1913–1996)
26 March
1977
13 July
1977
109 days  
7 K. S. Hegde
(1909–1990)
21 July
1977
21 January
1980
2 years, 184 days  
8 Balram Jakhar
(1923–2016)
22 January
1980
15 January
1985
9 years, 329 days  
16 January
1985
18 December
1989
 
9 Rabi Ray
(1926–2017)
19 December
1989
9 July
1991
1 year, 202 days  
10 Shivraj Patil
(born 1935)
10 July
1991
22 May
1996
4 years, 317 days  
11 P. A. Sangma
(1947–2016)
23 May
1996
23 March
1998
1 year, 304 days  
12 G. M. C. Balayogi
(1951–2002)
24 March
1998
19 October
1999
3 years, 342 days  
22 October
1999
3 March
2002
 
13 Manohar Joshi
(1937–2024)
10 May
2002
2 June
2004
2 years, 23 days  
14 Somnath Chatterjee
(1929–2018)
4 June
2004
4 June
2009
5 years, 0 days  
15 Meira Kumar
(born 1945)
4 June
2009
5 June
2014
5 years, 1 day  
16 Sumitra Mahajan
(born 1943)
6 June
2014
10 June
2019
5 years, 4 days  
17 Om Birla
(born 1962)
19 June
2019
5 June
2024
4 years, 357 days  
18 TBD 15 June
2024
     

Speaker of Lok Sabha and Article 93

The House of the People shall as soon as practicable elect two members to serve as its Speaker and Deputy Speaker, respectively, in accordance with Article 93, which governs the speaker and deputy speaker of the Lok Sabha. The House shall, when necessary, elect a new member to fill each vacancy occurring in one of those places.

Speaker of Lok Sabha and Constitutional Provision

Constitutional Provision Details
Article 94 It addresses the Speaker’s and Deputy Speaker’s provisions for resignation, leave of absence, and removal.
Article 95 The power of the Deputy Speaker or any other person to perform the duties of the Speaker or to act in that capacity.
Article 96 When a resolution to remove the Speaker from office is being discussed, the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker may preside.

Speaker of Lok Sabha Election and Tenure

The Speaker and Deputy Speaker are both elected under Article 93 of the Indian Constitution. The Lok Sabha elects the Speaker from among its members, and when the position becomes vacant, the Lok Sabha elects a new member to fill it. The President sets the date for the Speaker election.

There are no requirements that must be met in order to become Speaker. The Constitution simply specifies that the Speaker must be a member of the House. But understanding the nation’s Constitution and laws, as well as the customs and traditions of Parliament, is thought to be a big benefit for the Speaker.

The Speaker is in office from the day of their election till the first Lok Sabha session that takes place after the one they were elected to. When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, the Speaker is no longer considered a member of the House.

Speaker of Lok Sabha Role

The Speaker serves as the Lok Sabha’s head, its representative, and the protector of the members’ rights and privileges as well as those of the entire body and its committees. As the main representative of the House, he or she has the final say on all matters pertaining to the Parliament.

The Constitution of India, the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business of the Lok Sabha, and Parliamentary Conventions (residual powers not expressly stated in the Rules) are the three sources from which the Speaker of the Lok Sabha gets his or her authority.

Speaker of Lok Sabha Power and Duties

The Speaker of Lok Sabha holds significant powers and duties within the Indian parliamentary system. Here’s an elaboration:

Powers

  • Presiding Over Sessions: The Speaker presides over the meetings and sessions of the Lok Sabha, maintaining decorum and ensuring orderly conduct.
  • Decision on Procedures: They decide on matters of parliamentary procedures, including the admissibility of questions, debates, and discussions.
  • Casting Vote: In the case of a tie during voting, the Speaker has the casting vote, which can influence the outcome of a decision.
  • Committee Appointments: They have the authority to appoint members to various parliamentary committees.
  • Order and Discipline: The Speaker maintains order and discipline within the House, taking action against members who violate rules or disrupt proceedings.
  • Certification of Money Bills: The Speaker certifies whether a bill is a money bill or not. Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha, and the Speaker’s certification is final.
  • Summoning and Prorogation: The Speaker, in consultation with the President, summons and prorogues the sessions of Lok Sabha.

Duties

  • Representing the House: The Speaker represents the Lok Sabha in its relations with the President, Rajya Sabha, and other authorities.
  • Addressing Public: They address public gatherings on behalf of the Lok Sabha and convey its views on various issues.
  • Superintendence of Staff: The Speaker exercises superintendence over the staff of the Lok Sabha Secretariat.
  • Parliamentary Committees: The Speaker appoints the Chairpersons and members of various parliamentary committees and ensures their smooth functioning.
  • Conduct of Business: It is the Speaker’s duty to ensure that the business of the House is conducted efficiently and fairly.
  • Protection of Members’ Rights: The Speaker safeguards the rights and privileges of the members of Lok Sabha.
  • Ensuring Parliamentary Norms: They ensure that parliamentary norms, traditions, and conventions are upheld during the proceedings.
  • Addressing Public Concerns: The Speaker addresses public concerns and disseminates information about the functioning of the Lok Sabha.

Speaker of Lok Sabha Removal

The Lower House members participate in and cast votes in a transparent process that names the Lok Sabha Speaker for a term of five years. A formal procedure can be followed to remove the Speaker of Lok Sabha from office if necessary due to unanticipated events. A Lok Sabha Speaker can be removed from office primarily in three ways.

Speaker removal will occur if a resolution is approved by the Lok Sabha’s members with an absolute majority in accordance with Articles 94 and 95 of the Constitution. A Lok Sabha Speaker may participate in the House’s deliberations over his or her removal and may cast a vote, but only in the first round. Only if there are an unequal number of votes for and against removal will the vote be permitted. He/she shall be removed from office if prohibited from holding office under Sections 7 and 8 of the Representation of the People Act of 1951.

Also Read: Parliamentary Privileges

Speaker of Lok Sabha and Pro Tem

When the Speaker of the outgoing Lok Sabha resigns right before the start of the newly elected Lok Sabha’s first session, the President names a member of the Lok Sabha as Speaker Pro Tem. A vacancy in the position of Speaker of the House. Usually, the most experienced member is selected for this role. The President administers the oath and possesses all of the Speaker’s power. He or she administers the oath to the newly elected House members. However, once the new Lok Sabha Speaker is selected, that person’s term expires.

Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha

After electing the Speaker, the Lok Sabha chooses the Deputy Speaker from among its members. Since the 11th Lok Sabha, the Speaker has set the date for the election of the Deputy Speaker. Before this, the dominant party elected both the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker. His/her compensation is charged to the Consolidated Fund of India and is determined by Parliament.

Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha Power

A deputy speaker has the unique privilege of being able to lead a parliamentary or judicial committee as soon as they are appointed as a member of it. When the Speaker is not present, the Deputy Speaker preside over the combined session of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

Speaker of Lok Sabha UPSC

The Lok Sabha Speaker’s Office is a crucial component of our Indian Constitution’s system of government. So, it plays a significant role in the UPSC Exam. The House is represented by the Speaker. Because the House stands in for the whole country, he or she represents the dignity and freedom of the House. The Speaker thus has a special significance for the freedom and liberty of the country. It is therefore appropriate that it be an honored post, a free position, and that it be consistently held by men of exceptional competence and impartiality. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

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Speaker of the Lok Sabha FAQs

What is the tenure of the Lok Sabha Speaker?

The Lok Sabha Speaker is appointed for a period of 5 years.

Who is the first speaker of Lok Sabha?

Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar was the first speaker of Lok Sabha.

Who is current deputy speaker of Lok Sabha?

The current Lok Sabha does not have a deputy speaker, and the post has been vacant since 23 June 2019.

Who is the First Women Speaker of the Lok Sabha?

The first female Lok Sabha speaker was Smt. Meira Kumar.

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