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Non-Constitutional Bodies in India List, Types, Functions, Difference

Non-Constitutional Bodies

Institutions or organisations that are not included in the constitution or do not have a constitutional standing are referred to as non-constitutional bodies. As a result, non-constitutional bodies may be established by statute or executive order, known as statutory and non-statutory bodies, respectively. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), NITI Aayog, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), and others are a few examples of non-constitutional bodies.

Non-Constitutional Bodies in India

A non-constitutional body is an organisation or entity that is not mentioned in the Indian Constitution. Unlike a constitutional body, a non-constitutional institution lacks the authority granted by the Indian Constitution. The majority of the time, the authority of a non-constitutional body comes from laws passed by the Indian Parliament. Central Information Commission (CIC) is an example.

Non-Constitutional Bodies Types

Non-constitutional bodies are broadly categorised into the following categories according to how they obtain their authority and function:

  • Statutory Bodies
  • Non-Statutory Bodies

Non-Constitutional Bodies Types

Statutory Bodies Non-Statutory Bodies
Institutions known as Statutory Bodies often receive their authority from legislation passed by the Indian Parliament. Examples include the Lokpal, Lokayukta, and Central Information Commission (CIC).

Statutory based on based on their role are divided into two types:

  • Regulatory
  • Quasi-Judicial Bodies

A regulatory body is a government organisation tasked with exercising independent control over a particular area of human activity through regulation or supervision. Examples include the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

Quasi-judicial entities are non-judicial organisations with legal interpretation powers, such as Commissions or Tribunals. Their purview is more constrained than that of a court, setting them apart from judicial bodies. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), as an example.

Institutions known as Non-Statutory Bodies acquire their authority from executive orders and resolutions rather than from any legislation. Consider the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and NITI Aayog.

An organisation without legal jurisdiction is referred to as a non-statutory body.

The duties and responsibilities of a non-statutory organisation are not clearly established or defined.

On the other hand, non-statutory organisations work to accomplish their own objectives, which may or may not be compatible with those of the legislation.

In essence, “non-statutory” is just another way to say “common law.” As a result, such groups are only established by executive resolution or action, suggesting that only government activity is involved in their establishment.

By passing new legislation or amending existing legislation, they can be made statutory bodies.

They are not governed by any government, have a less formal structure, and it is unclear what their responsibilities and powers are.

They are not governed by formal authorities, lack a clearly defined organisational structure, and lack established powers and authority.

For Example, NITI Aayog, National Development Council, and National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC).

Difference Between Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Bodies

Check the difference between the constitutional and non-constitutional bodies in the table below:

Constitutional Bodies Non-Constitutional Bodies
  • A constitutional body is one created by the Indian Constitution.
  • When a constitutional body needs to be constituted in order to alter its authority or duties, a constitutional change is required.
  • The Constitutional body’s powers usually get derives its power and authority from the Indian Constitution.
  • A non-constitutional body is an organisation or entity that is not mentioned in the Indian Constitution.
  • Unlike a constitutional body, a non-constitutional institution lacks the authority granted by the Indian Constitution.
  • A non-constitutional body’s powers are usually derived from laws passed by the Indian Parliament.

List of Non-Constitutional Bodies & Constitutional Bodies

Constitutional Bodies Non-Constitutional Bodies
  • Election Commission
  • UPSC
  • SPSC
  • Finance Commission
  • Attorney General
  • CAG
  • National Commission for Scheduled Castes
  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
  • National Commission for Backward Classes
  • Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities
  • NITI Aayog
  • CBI
  • CIC
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • RBI
  • SEBI
  • TRAI
  • National Green Tribunal
  • Competition Commission of India
  • National Housing Bank etc.

Important Non-Constitutional Bodies

In contrast to a constitutional body, a non-constitutional institution lacks the authority granted by the Indian constitution. A non-constitutional body often derives its authority from laws passed by the Indian Parliament. Some of the non-constitutional bodies are discussed below:

Important Non-Constitutional Bodies

Non-Constitutional Bodies Details
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) The Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993 established the National Human Rights Commission as a statutory authority. The commission is responsible for monitoring the country’s human rights. The protection and promotion of “rights to life, liberty, equality, and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or enshrined in the International Covenants”.

Composition: It is a multi-membered body consisting of a chairman and five full-time members.


  • A person who has been the CJI or a Judge of SC can be a chairman.
  • A member who is and has been a CJI or Judge of SC.
  • A member who is and has been a Chief Justice of HC.
  • Three members are appointed from individuals who have the ground knowledge of matters such as Human Rights and one of the three must be a woman.


  • The chairman and other members are appointed by President

Term of Office:

  • Chairman and Member holds office for 3 years or until attaining age of 70 years

Initially, it was 5 years and 70 years of age but the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Bill 2019 brought these changes.


  • Proved misbehaviour and incapacity
  • Office of Profit
  • Unsound Mind
  • Insolvent
  • Convict and Sentenced to Imprisonment.


  • Inquire about violations of human rights.
  • Review constitutional and legal safeguards for human rights protection
  • Spread human rights literacy.
  • Review factors including acts of terrorism
NITI Aayog The Union Cabinet passed a resolution on January 1, 2015, creating the National Institution for Transforming India, or NITI Aayog. It is the top policy “Think Tank” of the Indian government, offering input on direction and policy.


  • PM the ex-officio chairman
  • Vice-Chairperson
  • Three full-time members
  • Four ex-officio Members
  • Chief Executive officer


  • PM as Chairman
  • Governing Council – CM and Lt Governor/Administrator
  • Regional Council
  • Special Invitees


  • To build, with the active participation of States, a common vision of national development priorities, sectors, and strategies.
  • To continuously promote cooperative federalism through organised support programmes and procedures with the States, acknowledging that powerful States lead to powerful nations.
  • To create methods for creating reliable plans at the village level and gradually combining these at higher tiers of governance.
  • To make sure that the interests of national security are taken into account in economic policy in the sectors that are particularly mentioned.

Non-Constitutional Bodies UPSC

Not every institution that exists could be covered by the Constitution. Additionally, not all organisations need constitutional standing because it costs money to keep them operating and doing their duties. Since many institutions are ad hoc in nature, they might not need full constitutional standing in order to carry out their duties.

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Non-Constitutional Bodies FAQs

Which is the non constitutional body of India UPSC?

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), NITI Aayog, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) etc.

How many non constitutional bodies are there in India?

There are nine non-constitutional bodies in India. They are NITI Ayog, Lokpal and Lokayuktas, Central Bureau of Investigation, State Human right commission etc.

How are non constitutional bodies formed?

They are created by an Act of Parliament. These are also termed non-constitutional bodies that make rules & regulations and take decisions on behalf of the government.

What are non-constitutional bodies?

A Non-Constitutional body does not possess powers provided by the constitution.

Is RBI a non-constitutional body?

Reserve Bank of India is a statutory body. RBI was established through Reserve Bank of India Act, 1935. RBI is not a constitutional body.

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