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Good Governance, Meaning, Principles, Need, Challanges

Good Governance

The administration of public affairs in a just, fair, and reasonable manner is good governance. Federal countries like India are more likely to have a variety of administrative systems, which could create complications and difficulties that help to shape the concept of good governance. The Good Governance Index was created by the Indian government to assess the effectiveness of various efforts done by state and UT administrations in terms of governance.

Good Governance is an important part of Indian Polity which is an important subject in the UPSC Syllabus. Students can also go for the UPSC Mock Test to get more accuracy in their preparations.

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What is Good Governance?

The idea of good governance was developed in India in response to numerous judicial and administrative issues. Although the term “good governance” was just used in the 1990s, the idea is not new to Indian culture. The universal appeal and relevance of fundamental ideas of just governance, responsibility, and fairness were emphasised in Kautilya’s Arthashastra.

An analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in the decision-making and decision-implementation processes, as well as the formal and informal structures that have been put in place to arrive at and implement the decision. By avoiding corruption, taking into account the opinions of minorities, and giving the voices of the most disadvantaged societies a voice in decision-making, good governance is ensured. Additionally, it is pertinent to the needs of the present and the future of society.

Good Governance Day

Good Governance Day is celebrated in India on December 25th, which coincides with the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It’s a day dedicated to promoting transparency, accountability, and responsiveness in government, aiming to enhance public trust and improve the lives of citizens.

Good Governance Eight Principle

The UN has identified eight crucial components of successful government. Here is a summary of what each of them is all about:


Institutions and procedures must provide timely service to all stakeholders.


The goal of good governance is to make people’s lives better, but this cannot happen until public and institutional stakeholders keep governmental institutions, commercial sectors, and civil society organisations accountable.


Information regarding how the government operates should be accessible to the general people .

Effective and Efficient

Good governance entails that organizations and procedures produce outcomes that satisfy societal needs while making the best possible use of available resources. This includes preserving the environment and making sustainable use of natural resources.

Equity and Inclusiveness

A just society is ensured by effective governance. In a society like this, nobody or any group feels excluded or marginalized. No one should be discriminated against, and opportunities should be provided to everyone regardless of their backgrounds.


Making decisions ensures that even if no one gets all they want, everyone can still achieve a common minimum that is beneficial to everyone.


Men and women should be able to express themselves through legitimate local organizations or representatives, as well as underrepresented groups in society, such as minorities, the working class, and others.

Rule of Law

The legal system, in particular the human rights rules, ought to be applied fairly. If there is no rule of law, the powerful will prevail over the weak.

Good Governance Need

There is a need for good governance since it promotes political, social, and economic development. Let’s examine how good governance advances each of these three areas in more depth:

Economic Development

An unsteady administration makes it difficult for a state to advance economically. Among the difficulties faced by economic development are those related to producing, distributing, investing, and even consuming. However, good governance and equitable resource allocation within the state will make it simple to remove these obstacles.

Social Development and Good Governance

People from various religious traditions, social classes, and castes coexist peacefully in civilizations. However, if incomes are not divided equitably, it will lead to societal instability if there is an improper allocation of income. Although there is not an equitable enough distribution of income, minorities must be given the proper accommodations so that they can leave without fear. There are various reform initiatives that must be adopted in order to close the gender gap in society.

Political Development

The effectiveness of having good governance for society depends on politicians’ honesty and obedience to the laws and rules of the system. The government and political parties must develop policies for the welfare of the people and cooperate effectively to ensure healthy competition.

Characteristics of Good Governance

Good governance encompasses a diverse set of principles and practices that contribute to a well-functioning society. Here are some key characteristics that define it:

  • Citizen engagement: Active involvement of citizens in decision-making processes through voting, consultations, and feedback mechanisms.
  • Inclusiveness: Ensuring everyone has the opportunity to participate regardless of background, ethnicity, gender, or socio-economic status.
  • Freedom of expression: Guarantee of open and respectful dialogue, where diverse viewpoints can be heard and considered.
  • Fair and impartial legal system: Consistent application of laws without bias or favoritism.
  • Accountability of government: Holding public officials responsible for their actions and decisions.
  • Access to justice: Ensuring everyone has equal access to legal services and the justice system
  • Openness and accessibility of information: Public accessibility to government data, plans, and decisions.
  • Corruption-free practices: Strong systems to prevent and combat corruption within the government.
  • Regular reporting and communication: Proactive engagement with citizens through clear and understandable communication.
  • Listening to citizens’ needs and concerns: Prompt and effective response to public feedback and requests.
  • Delivery of quality services: Efficient and effective provision of essential public services, such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure.
  • Adaptability to changing needs: Flexibility to adjust policies and programs in response to evolving circumstances.
  • Fair distribution of resources and opportunities: Addressing imbalances and ensuring everyone has a chance to thrive.
  • Non-discrimination: Protection against discrimination based on any factor, such as race, religion, gender, or disability.
  • Focus on disadvantaged groups: Special attention to the needs and vulnerabilities of marginalized communities.
  • Achieving desired outcomes: Using resources wisely and achieving set goals for policies and programs.
  • Minimizing waste and inefficiency: Eliminating unnecessary bureaucracy and maximizing the impact of available resources.
  • Continuous improvement: A commitment to ongoing evaluation and refinement of governance practices.

Associated Challenges with Good Governance

There are many challenges associated with good governance in India, A few are mentioned here:

Criminalization of Politics

A total of 43% of Lok Sabha MPs were facing criminal charges in 2019, according to figures provided by the Association of Democratic Reforms. Since 2014, this figure has climbed from 26%. Public policy and governance are badly impacted by the criminalization of politics and the unjust alliance of elected officials, government employees, and corporate entities. As a result of this growing criminalization of politics, the public has begun to see the political class with less respect.

Corruption in Good Governance

For a very long time, India’s governing structure has been plagued by corruption. It significantly impedes quality and good governance. Although individual greed undoubtedly contributes to corrupt practises, other factors such as a weak enforcement system and structural incentives also contribute to the growth of corruption in India. India has achieved the rank of 80th in the 2019 corruption perception index.

Increasing Violence

The proper implementation of law, order, and peace in the public sphere is essential for good governance. Increased rates of crime and violence in society are indicators of poor governance.

Gender Discrimination

The traditional Indian culture has long been characterised by gender inequality, where women are devalued in comparison to men. The situation and position of women in a state might be used to assess its condition. The ideal male to female ratio is 50:50, although this is unbalanced in almost all of the states. Additionally, as a result of this, women’s participation in politics and other related fields is insufficient in comparison to men.

Delayed Justice

The delivery of prompt justice to the public is impeded by practises including criminalization and political corruption. This causes the proceedings to drag on for months or even years, delaying the victims’ access to justice.

Centralization of Administrative System

Only if lower-level governments are given sufficient authority and power through the decentralization process will they be able to perform at their best. The centralization of the administrative structure particularly affects Panchayati Raj Institutions, whose constitutionally mandated duties are not carried out due to limited funds and personnel.

Marginalization of Backward Classes

The economically and socially disadvantaged sector of society has been disenfranchised ever since India’s independence. Despite the provisions made by the constitution for the advancement of socially and economically disadvantaged groups, they continue to lag behind in a number of crucial areas, such as economics, education, and other fields.

Government Initiative for Good Governance

There are numerous government initiatives across the country aimed at promoting good governance. Here are some notable examples given below:

RTI (Right to information)

Under Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, India is required to uphold the right to information for all of its inhabitants. The introduction of the RTI in the nation strengthens democracy. All of the nation’s population having access to knowledge about government activities encourages the government to act responsibly and favourably. Access to written information encourages government accountability.

E-Governance and Good Governance

The government is intended to provide transparency, dependability, and efficiency so that all services are available to the general populace of the nation. Better prospects for e-governance to provide better programming and services are created by new emerging information and communication technology, which is heralding a rapid social and economic transition throughout the world. The use of e-governance services is directly advantageous for citizens who conduct transactions using the government’s services.

Good Governance for Ease of Doing Business

The government has started the innovative Make in India programme to encourage conducting business in India. By passing legislation aimed at enhancing the business environment, the government has also enhanced the policy ecosystems.

Legal Reforms

By removing roughly 1500 revised rules and regulations, it seeks to increase efficiency and promote openness. Criminal justice and procedural reforms must put a premium on mediation before incarceration.

Good Governance Index (GGI)

By evaluating the State of Governance across States and UTs, the Good Governance Index is a thorough and practical paradigm that enables the ranking of States and Districts. The objective of GGI is to provide a mechanism that can be applied uniformly throughout all States to assess the efficacy of various projects launched by the Central and State Governments, including UTs. It was launched by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) of the Government of India in 2019.

The Good Governance Index presents a comparative picture of the States based on the GGI Framework and fosters a culture of competition for advancement. It is backed by 58 indicators from ten different sectors. For instance, agriculture and allied industries, business and industry, human resource development, public health, etc.

Good Governance UPSC

Every person in the nation is interested in seeing the government-run as efficiently as possible. Citizens are willing to pay more for efficient government services, but what is required is a fair, impartial, transparent, and clear system of governance. We must restructure our national strategy to give the Gandhian principle of “Antyodaya” top priority in order to restore efficient governance to the nation. India should endeavour to improve government integrity, which will make it more moral. In order to promote inclusive and sustainable growth, the government should continue to emphasise the Sabka Saath, and Sabka Vikas ideals. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

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Good Governance FAQs

What are the 8 importance of good governance?

Governance helps you to always act in the best interests of the business. More specifically, it can improve the performance of your business, help it become more stable and productive, and unlock new opportunities. It can reduce risks, and enable faster and safer growth. It can also improve reputation and foster trust.

What are the 4 pillars of good governance?

The board of directors must act following the four principles of governance — accountability, transparency, fairness and responsibility — for the best interest of stakeholders, shareholders and the business as a whole.

What are the 8 part of good governance?

Good governance has 8 major characteristics. 'It is participatory, consensus-oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law.

What is the main point of good governance?

Good governance relates to the political and institutional processes and outcomes that are necessary to achieve the goals of development. The true test of 'good' governance is the degree to which it delivers on the promise of human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights.

What is good governance and its types?

Good governance is the process of measuring how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.

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