The administration of public affairs in a just, fair, and reasonable manner is good governance. Federal countries like India are more likely to have a variety of administrative systems, which could create complications and difficulties that help to shape the concept of good governance. The Good Governance Index was created by the Indian government to assess the effectiveness of various efforts done by state and UT administrations in terms of governance.
Good Governance Meaning
The idea of good governance was developed in India in response to numerous judicial and administrative issues. Although the term “good governance” was just used in the 1990s, the idea is not new to Indian culture. The universal appeal and relevance of fundamental ideas of just governance, responsibility, and fairness were emphasised in Kautilya’s Arthashastra.
An analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in the decision-making and decision-implementation processes, as well as the formal and informal structures that have been put in place to arrive at and implement the decision. By avoiding corruption, taking into account the opinions of minorities, and giving the voices of the most disadvantaged societies a voice in decision-making, good governance is ensured. Additionally, it is pertinent to the needs of the present and the future of society.
Good Governance Eight Principle
The UN has identified eight crucial components of successful government. Here is a brief summary of what each of them is all about:
Institutions and procedures must provide timely service to all stakeholders.
The goal of good governance is to make people’s lives better, but this cannot happen until public and institutional stakeholders keep governmental institutions, commercial sectors, and civil society organisations accountable.
Information regarding how the government operates should be accessible to the general people .
Effective and Efficient
Good governance entails that organizations and procedures produce outcomes that satisfy societal needs while making the best possible use of available resources. This includes preserving the environment and making sustainable use of natural resources.
Equity and Inclusiveness
A just society is ensured by effective governance. In a society like this, nobody or any group feels excluded or marginalized. No one should be discriminated against, and opportunities should be provided to everyone regardless of their backgrounds.
Making decisions ensures that even if no one gets all they want, everyone can still achieve a common minimum that is beneficial to everyone.
Men and women should be able to express themselves through legitimate local organizations or representatives, as well as underrepresented groups in society, such as minorities, the working class, and others.
Rule of Law
The legal system, in particular the human rights rules, ought to be applied fairly. If there is no rule of law, the powerful will prevail over the weak.
Good Governance Need
There is a need for good governance since it promotes political, social, and economic development. Let’s examine how good governance advances each of these three areas in more depth:
An unsteady administration makes it difficult for a state to advance economically. Among the difficulties faced by economic development are those related to producing, distributing, investing, and even consuming. However, good governance and equitable resource allocation within the state will make it simple to remove these obstacles.
Social Development and Good Governance
People from various religious traditions, social classes, and castes coexist peacefully in civilizations. However, if incomes are not divided equitably, it will lead to societal instability if there is an improper allocation of income. Although there is not an equitable enough distribution of income, minorities must be given the proper accommodations so that they can leave without fear. There are various reform initiatives that must be adopted in order to close the gender gap in society.
The effectiveness of having good governance for society depends on politicians’ honesty and obedience to the laws and rules of the system. The government and political parties must develop policies for the welfare of the people and cooperate effectively to ensure healthy competition.
Good Governance Challenges
There are many challenges associated with good governance in India, few are mentioned here:
A total of 43% of Lok Sabha MPs were facing criminal charges in 2019, according to figures provided by the Association of Democratic Reforms. Since 2014, this figure has climbed from 26%. Public policy and governance are badly impacted by the criminalization of politics and the unjust alliance of elected officials, government employees, and corporate entities. As a result of this growing criminalization of politics, the public has begun to see the political class with less respect.
Corruption in Good Governance
For a very long time, India’s governing structure has been plagued by corruption. It significantly impedes quality and good governance. Although individual greed undoubtedly contributes to corrupt practises, other factors such as a weak enforcement system and structural incentives also contribute to the growth of corruption in India. India has achieved the rank of 80th in the 2019 corruption perception index.
The proper implementation of law, order, and peace in the public sphere is essential for good governance. Increased rates of crime and violence in society are indicators of poor governance.
The traditional Indian culture has long been characterised by gender inequality, where women are devalued in comparison to men. The situation and position of women in a state might be used to assess its condition. The ideal male to female ratio is 50:50, although this is unbalanced in almost all of the states. Additionally, as a result of this, women’s participation in politics and other related fields is insufficient in comparison to men.
The delivery of prompt justice to the public is impeded by practises including criminalization and political corruption. This causes the proceedings to drag on for months or even years, delaying the victims’ access to justice.
Centralization of Administrative System
Only if lower-level governments are given sufficient authority and power through the decentralization process will they be able to perform at their best. The centralization of the administrative structure particularly affects Panchayati Raj Institutions, whose constitutionally mandated duties are not carried out due to limited funds and personnel.
Marginalization of Backward Classes
The economically and socially disadvantaged sector of society has been disenfranchised ever since India’s independence. Despite the provisions made by the constitution for the advancement of socially and economically disadvantaged groups, they continue to lag behind in a number of crucial areas, such as economics, education, and other fields.
Good Governance Initiative
RTI (Right to information)
In accordance with article 19 of the international covenant on civil and political rights, India is required to uphold the right to information for all of its inhabitants. The introduction of the RTI in the nation strengthens democracy. All of the nation’s population having access to knowledge about government activities encourages the government to act responsibly and favorably. Access to written information encourages government accountability.
E-Governance & Good Governance
The government is intended to provide transparency, dependability, and efficiency so that all services are available to the general populace of the nation. Better prospects for e-governance to provide better programming and services are created by new emerging information and communication technology, which is heralding a rapid social and economic transition throughout the world. The use of e-governance services is directly advantageous for citizens who conduct transactions using the government’s services.
Good Governance for Ease of Doing Business
The government has started the innovative Make in India programme to encourage conducting business in India. By passing legislation aimed at enhancing the business environment, the government has also enhanced the policy ecosystems.
By removing roughly 1500 revised rules and regulations, it seeks to increase efficiency and promote openness. Criminal justice and procedural reforms must put a premium on mediation before incarceration.
Good Governance Index
By evaluating the State of Governance across States and UTs, the Good Governance Index is a thorough and practical paradigm that enables ranking of States and Districts. The objective of GGI is to provide a mechanism that can be applied uniformly throughout all States to assess the efficacy of various projects launched by the Central and State Governments, including UTs.
The Index presents a comparative picture of the States based on the GGI Framework and fosters a culture of competition for advancement. It is backed by 58 indicators from ten different sectors. For instance, agriculture and allied industries, business and industry, human resource development, public health, etc.
Good Governance UPSC
Every person in the nation is interested in seeing the government run as efficiently as possible. Citizens are willing to pay more for efficient government services, but what is required is a fair, impartial, transparent, and clear system of governance. We must restructure our national strategy to give the Gandhian principle of “Antyodaya” top priority in order to restore efficient governance to the nation.India should endeavour to improve government integrity, which will make it more moral. In order to promote inclusive and sustainable growth, the government should continue to emphasise the Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas ideals. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.