High Court of India
The State Judicial System consists of a High Court and a network of lower courts. On the recommendation of the Law Commission, the Indian High Courts Act 1861, which was enacted in 1858, proposed the formation of High Courts in the three Presidency cities of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay in place of the Supreme Court.
The High Court of Calcutta issued a charter in May 1862, and the High Courts of Madras and Bombay followed suit in June 1862. As a result, the Calcutta High Court was established as the first High Court in the nation. The Constitution establishes the organisational structure and legal groundwork for the High Courts.
List of High Courts in India
Here’s the complete list of High Court of India from all states:
Seat & Bench
|1862||Bombay High Court||Maharashtra
Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman Diu
Bench: Panaji, Aurangabad, and Nagpur
|1862||Kolkata High Court||West Bengal
Andaman & Nicobar islands
Bench: Port Blair
|1862||Madras High Court||Tamil Nadu
|1866||Allahabad High Court||Uttar Pradesh||Seat: Allahabad
|1884||Karnataka High Court||Karnataka||Seat: Bengaluru
Bench: Dharwad and Gulbarga
|1916||Patna High Court||Bihar||Patna|
|1948||Guwahati High Court||Assam
Bench: Kohima, Aizawl, and Itanagar
|1949||Odisha High Court||Odisha||Cuttack|
|1949||Rajasthan High Court||Rajasthan||Seat: Jodhpur
|1956||Madhya Pradesh High Court||Madhya Pradesh||Seat: Jabalpur
Bench: Gwalior and Indore
|1958||Kerala High Court||Kerala & Lakshadweep||Ernakulam|
|1960||Gujarat High Court||Gujarat||Ahmedabad|
|1966||Delhi High Court||Delhi||Delhi|
|1971||Himachal Pradesh High Court||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla|
|1975||Punjab & Haryana High Court||Punjab, Haryana & Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|1975||Sikkim High Court||Sikkim||Gangtok|
|2000||Chattisgarh High Court||Chattisgarh||Bilaspur|
|2000||Uttarakhand High Court||Uttarakhand||Nainital|
|2000||Jharkhand High Court||Jharkhand||Ranchi|
|2013||Tripura High Court||Tripura||Agartala|
|2013||Manipur High Court||Manipur||Imphal|
|2013||Meghalaya High Court||Meghalaya||Shillong|
|2019||Telangana High Court||Telangana||Hyderabad|
|2019||Andhra Pradesh High Court||Andhra Pradesh||Amravati|
|2019||Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh High Court
(Note: In 1928, Jammu & Kashmir high court was established. Post-bi-furcation of J&K into two union territories; there is now a common high court.)
|Jammu and Kashmir
How many High Courts are there in India?
In India, there are 25 High Courts. The Indian High Courts Act 1861, which proposed the formation of High Courts in place of the Supreme Court in three Presidencies—Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay—was passed by the Parliament in 1858 on the advice of the Law Commission. In May 1862, the High Court of Calcutta received its charter, while Madras and Bombay received theirs in June 1862.
The requirement for a distinct judicial body for several states served as the justification for the enactment of this statute. Therefore, the British Government decided to replace the then-existing Supreme Court and Sadar Adalat with the High Court.
Following independence, it was ruled that each Indian state must have its own High Court in accordance with Article 214 of the Indian Constitution. Specific guidelines and qualifying requirements were established for the appointment of judges in all High Courts.
After India gained its independence, the entire legal system changed, and rules issued by the British were different from those found in the Indian Penal Code.
Which is the Newest High Court of India?
The High Court was most recently established in Andhra Pradesh. On January 1st, 2019, Andhra Pradesh created its High Court. Each High Court under British rule has a Chief Justice and a maximum of 15 other puisne justices. But throughout time, the formation of the Indian High Court underwent certain adjustments:
- The President shall appoint the Chief Justice of each High Court.
- Unlike before, each High Court might appoint an unlimited number of judges.
- Additional judges may also be appointed to adjudicate matters that are still pending in court. But they are only allowed to serve for a maximum of two years.
One thing to keep in mind is that no one can be appointed as a High Court Judge if they are over the age of 62. The High Court’s do not all have the same number of judges assigned to them. Comparatively speaking, a smaller state will have fewer judges than a larger state.
High Court of India Jurisdiction
The High Court is the state’s highest appeals court and has the authority to interpret the Constitution. It is responsible for defending citizens’ fundamental rights. Additionally, it performs consulting and managerial functions. However, the Constitution makes no specific mention of the authority and jurisdiction of a high court.
Such circumstances do not necessitate filing an appeal, and the applicant may instead go directly to the High Court. The majority of cases involving the State Legislative Assembly, marriages, the enforcement of fundamental rights, and the transfer of cases from other courts are affected by it.
Power of Superintendence
The High Court is the sole subordinate court with this unique power; all other courts lack it. In accordance with this, the High Court has the authority to direct its subordinate offices and courts to define rules for conducting court cases and to settle the fees paid to sheriff clerks, officers, and attorneys.
Court of Record
It involves permanently preserving the decisions, actions, and acts of high courts on record. No court will allow further discussion of these records. It is able to impose punishment for self-disrespect.
Control over Subordinate Courts
The appellate and supervisory jurisdictions are extended in this way. It stipulates that if a matter contains a substantial legal question, the High Court may withdraw it from any subordinate court. The case may be resolved on its own or by resolving the legal issue and returning to the same court.
This is for situations where someone has complained about the district courts or the territory’s subordinate court’s decision being reviewed. The following two categories further divide this power:
- Civil jurisdiction: District court, civil district court, and subordinate court decisions and judgments fall within the category of civil jurisdiction.
- Criminal Jurisdiction: This covers decisions and orders rendered by the session court and any further session courts.
Power of Judicial Review
This authority of the High Court also extends to the ability to judge whether state and federal legislative and executive directives are lawful. It should be emphasized that although our constitution doesn’t use the term “judicial review,” Articles 13 and 226 plainly grant the High Court this authority.
Writ Jurisdiction of High Court
A high court is authorized by the Constitution’s Article 226 to issue writs, such as quo warranto, quo mandamus, certiorari, prohibition, and habeas corpus, to uphold citizens’ fundamental rights and for any other reason.
How is a Judge of High Court of India Appointed?
The President of India appoints judges to the High Court. Any judge appointed to a High Court must be approved by him alone. He may, however, speak with the state’s governor, the acting chief justice of India, and the chief justice of the state’s high court.
Additionally, a High Court judge may be transferred to other High Courts. The Chief Justice of India will make the final decision. The goal of judge transfers is to guarantee fair and proper adjudication of each case heard in a court of law.
High Court of India Judge Eligibility Criteria
To be appointed as a judge in any High court in India, a candidate must meet a set of requirements. The set of qualifications needed to select judges to the High Court are listed below: Any of the prerequisites listed must be met:
- The candidate should have more than five years of bar experience.
- Has worked for the government for more than ten years and has at least three years of experience in the Zila court.
- A party who has filed a plea in a High Court for more than ten years.
- A judge should not be older than 62 years old..
Despite the fact that the law mandates that each state have its own High Court, there are still certain states that do not. For instance, the Punjab High Court, located in Chandigarh, has jurisdiction over both Punjab and Haryana. The seven states of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Mizoram also share a common High Court.
High Court of India: Salaries of Judges
A judge of the High Court is entitled, under Article 221, to the pension and leave-of-absence benefits that Parliament may occasionally decide upon. After a Judge is appointed, nevertheless, this cannot be altered to his detriment.
|Chief Justice of the High Court||90,000||2,50,000|
|Other Judges of the High Court||80,000||2,25,000|
High Court of India Facts for UPSC
- The Chief Justice of each High Court is joined by other judges who the President appoints.
- There are currently 25 High Courts in India.
- A joint High Court for the states of Punjab and Haryana is located in Chandigarh.
- On January 1st, 2019, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act of 2014 was implemented, creating the Andhra Pradesh High Court.
- The Calcutta High Court was founded in 1862 and is the nation’s first.
- With 160 judges, the Allahabad High Court is the one with the most.
High Court of India: FAQs
Q How many High courts in India?
Ans. In India, there are 25 High Courts, with six having jurisdiction over several States or UTs.
Q Which state has 2 High Court?
Ans. More than two states are subject to the jurisdiction of the high court’s in Mumbai and Guwahati. Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Mizoram are included in the jurisdiction of the Guwahati High Court.
Q Are there 26 high courts in India?
Ans. In India, there are 25 High Courts. The Calcutta High Court is India’s first High Court, having been founded in 1862. In the same year, the high court’s in Bombay and Madras were also formed. The Telangana Court and the Andhra Pradesh High Court, both of which were founded in 2019, are the two newest High Courts.
Q Which is the largest High Court in India?
Ans. Allahabad High Court is the largest court in India
Q Which is latest High Court in India?
Ans. According to the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014, the two newest high courts, the Andhra High Court and Telangana High Court, were constituted on January 1, 2019.
Major Incidents in Indian History
- Quit India Movement
- Chauri Chaura Incident
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
- Green Revolution in India
- Non-Cooperation Movement
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