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Constitution Day, also known as Samvidhan Divas, is celebrated in India on November 26th every year. This day commemorates the adoption of the Constitution of India. On November 26, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution, and it came into effect on January 26, 1950, marking the country’s transition to a republic.
To honor this historic event, November 26th was officially declared as Constitution Day in 2015 by the Government of India. On this day, various events, seminars, and discussions are organized across the country to create awareness about the importance of the Constitution and to promote its values and principles. It is a day to reflect on the ideals enshrined in the Constitution and to reaffirm the commitment to upholding democratic values and principles.
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Constitution Day of India
Constitution Day, also known as Samvidhan Divas or National Law Day, is celebrated in India on November 26th every year. This day marks the adoption of the Constitution of India by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The Constitution officially came into effect on January 26, 1950.
The Constitution of India is the world’s longest-written constitution. It provides a framework to guide and govern the country, considering its unique social, cultural, and religious diversity.
The Constituent Assembly took almost three years to complete the Constitution. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, the chairman of the drafting committee, played an important role in the drafting of the Constitution. He is considered the chief architect of the Indian Constitution.
What is Constitution Day?
Constitution Day, also recognized as National Law Day, is observed annually on the 26th of November. This day holds historical significance as it marks the formal adoption of the Constitution of India by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The Constitution, which came into effect on the 26th of January 1950, signifies India’s transition to a republic.
The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, on the 19th of November 2015, officially declared the government’s decision to celebrate the 26th of November as ‘Constitution Day.’ This occasion serves as a reminder of the foundational principles enshrined in the Constitution and fosters awareness and appreciation for the legal framework that governs the nation.
To honor the legacy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, November 26 was designated as Constitution Day. As a key figure in the drafting committee of the Constitution, Dr. Ambedkar played a crucial role in shaping its principles. The Constitution of India was meticulously crafted by the Constituent Assembly, which established a total of 13 committees to address various aspects of constitution-making. Among these, eight were major committees, and the remaining were minor committees, each entrusted with specific tasks related to the framing of the Constitution.
National Law Day
National Law Day, also known as Samvidhan Divas or Constitution Day, is celebrated in India on November 26. The day commemorates the adoption of the Constitution of India by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950.
The Supreme Court Bas Association declared November 26 as National Law Day 30 years after the adoption of the Constitution. Government departments and schools across the country celebrate the day with events and activities.
Dr. BR Ambedkar, the chairman of the Drafting Committee, is considered the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution provides a framework to govern the country, keeping in mind its unique social, cultural, and religious diversity.
History of Constitution Day
The Constituent Assembly, tasked with drafting the Constitution, convened its inaugural session on December 9, 1946, following a demand initially proposed in 1934 by M.N. Roy, a communist party leader. The Congress party embraced the idea, and in 1940, the British government accepted the demand. Prior to independence, the Constituent Assembly, presided over by Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha, convened for the first time on December 9, 1946.
The assembly dedicated two years, eleven months, and seventeen days to crafting the historic Constitution, spanning eleven sessions and 165 days, with 114 days devoted to deliberating the Draft Constitution. Jawaharlal Nehru presented the “Objectives Resolution” on December 13, 1946, later adopted as the Preamble on January 22, 1947. On August 29, 1947, the Drafting Committee, chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, was formed. November 26, 1949, witnessed the adoption of the Constitution, which officially took effect on January 26, 1950.
Celebration of Constitution Day
While Constitution Day is not marked by extravagant celebrations, it is observed in diverse ways at various places:
- Schools participate in the day by having all students read the preamble of the constitution.
- Both online and offline quiz and essay competitions centered around the Constitution of India are organized.
- Schools conduct lectures that focus on the key features of the constitution to enhance understanding and awareness among students.
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India stands as the world’s lengthiest written constitution, comprising a preamble and 470 articles organized into 25 parts and 12 schedules. Unlike traditional typesetting or printing, the Constitution was meticulously handwritten and calligraphic in both English and Hindi. The artistic endeavor was carried out by the talented craftsmen of Shantiniketan, guided by Acharya Nandalal Bose. The calligraphy, executed by Prem Behari Narain Raizada in Delhi, contributed to the unique aesthetic of this significant document.
The original copies of the Constitution of India are safeguarded in specialized helium-filled cases within the Library of the Parliament of India.
The 42nd Amendment in 1976 introduced the Fundamental Duties of citizens based on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee, which was formed by the Government.
- Longest written constitution
- Parliamentary Form of Government
- Separation of Powers
- Fundamental Rights
- Single Citizenship
Key Amendments Made:
- 1st CAA: Added laws to the Ninth Schedule, providing immunity from legal challenges.
- 42nd CAA: Introduced Article 51-A (which includes 10 Fundamental Duties), appended Socialist, Secular, and Integrity to the Preamble, and incorporated new Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 39, 39A, 43A, 48A).
Significance of Constitution Day
Constitution Day holds immense significance as it commemorates the adoption of India’s Constitution:
- Foundational Document: Marks the adoption of the Constitution on November 26, 1949.
- Democratic Values: Reinforces democratic principles and the rule of law.
- Awareness and Education: Promotes understanding of constitutional rights and duties.
- Patriotism: Fosters a sense of national pride and unity.
- Constitutional Commitment: Reaffirms the commitment to constitutional ideals and values.
- Educational Initiatives: Encourages schools and institutions to conduct programs on the Constitution.
- Historical Reflection: Offers an opportunity to reflect on the visionary contributions of the Constituent Assembly.
- Citizen Empowerment: Aims to empower citizens with knowledge about their fundamental rights and responsibilities.
Constitution Day of India UPSC
Constitution Day, or ‘Samvidhan Divas,’ is observed annually on November 26th in India to mark the adoption of the Constitution. Recognized by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment on November 19, 2015, the government designated this day to enhance awareness and promote constitutional values among citizens. Celebrated on the anniversary of the Constitution’s formal adoption by the Constituent Assembly, Constitution Day encourages reflection on the foundational principles that guide India’s governance. This commemoration underscores the significance of democratic ideals and the role of citizens in upholding the values enshrined in the Constitution.