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Veto Power of President, Meaning Types and Uses

Veto Power of President

The most significant authority granted to the President while taking into account legislation from the legislature is the veto power. Any bill that has been adopted by the parliament in both houses and another legislative body may be rejected by the president with an absolute veto. Any measure that needs to be made into a law or act needs to be approved by the President and both houses. The Veto Power of President is the term used to describe the Indian President’s ability to veto, revoke, or reject a measure.

The Veto Power of President is an important part of Indian Polity which an important subject in UPSC Syllabus. Students can also go for UPSC Mock Test to get more accuracy in their preparations.

Veto Power of President Meaning

The President of India has three different sorts of veto power that he might use throughout the bill approval process, as stated in Article 111. If the President declines to sign the bill for whatever reason, it will not be able to become law or an act. A bill must be approved by both chambers of the Indian parliament in order to become law or an act.

The President of India’s veto power is intended to stop hurried, poorly thought-out legislation as well as legislation that is not in accordance with the spirit of the Indian constitution. A measure enacted by Parliament can be rejected by the President of India using the Veto authority.

Veto Power of President Types

Article 111 of the Indian Constitution specifies that the President of India has a limited right of veto. The President is granted three different vetoes:

  • Absolute Veto Power
  • Suspensive Veto Power
  • Pocket Veto Power

The numerous veto powers granted to the president of a nation often serve diverse purposes. The President’s veto powers are intended to protect constitutional principles, ensure that legislation is properly scrutinised, maintain a balance of power, and stop the passage of potentially detrimental or unconstitutional laws.

Absolute Veto Power of Indian President

When a measure is given to the president after being approved by the parliament, he has absolute discretion to accept or reject it. As a result, it won’t result in the bill being a law or an act. The law stagnates and dies when the president exercises his absolute veto because even after it is approved by the legislature, he does not sign it.

Absolute Veto was used after the private member’s bill was approved by parliament. The bill is rejected if the cabinet leaves before receiving the President’s assent because the next cabinet will not insist on passing the legislation that the previous cabinet left behind. India formerly utilised the absolute veto power. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, for instance, used it in 1954, and K. Venkatraman, in 1991.

Suspensive Veto Power of President

The President can send a law back to the legislature for reconsideration when using the Suspensive Veto. Nevertheless, the President must approve a measure if the parliament submits it to him repeatedly without making any changes.

This benefit is not extended to state legislatures, where the President can still refuse to sign a measure under the Suspensive Veto power if state law represents it with or without amendments. While debating the law, the president only considers an ordinary majority, not a larger majority. The money measure is not subject to the President’s suspensive veto power.

Pocket Veto Power of President

In a pocket veto, the president might choose not to act on a bill that has been offered to him by the legislature for an indefinite period of time without giving a reason or rejecting it. The president can use the Pocket Veto in India to better comprehend the situation and keep the bill in their pocket without taking any further action.

However, the US president does not have access to a Pocket Veto; instead, they must send the measure back to parliament within 10 days. Benefits for an unlimited period of time are thus limited to the Indian President. Giani Zail Singh previously utilised the president’s pocket veto power in 1986. Regarding the Constitutional Amendment Bill, the President is not permitted to employ this authority. There is no justification for withholding this measure from the President, who has already taken action.

Veto Power of President India Article

The President has the authority to approve a law after the parliament has passed it under clause 111, the veto power clause. Regarding the measure, the president has three options. The President has three options: Accept the Bill, Refuse the Bill, and Return the Bill. The President must also accept the law if the legislature sends it again.

Suspensive Veto Power as per Article 111

The President has the authority to send a bill back to parliament for reconsideration if he believes it violates the constitution. If the measure pertains to a constitutional amendment, the President cannot refuse to accept and approve it. According to the definition of the term “pocket veto,” the president has the ability to keep a bill that has been delivered to him in his possession for an indefinite period of time if he chooses not to act on it.

Types of Veto Power for Bill

President can use the veto power for approval in a different bill:

Type of Bill Veto Power of President
Ordinary Bill The President has three options. He has three options: 1) accept it, 2) refuse it, and 3) return the bill.
Money Bill The President has the following options: accept it, hold it pending, or refuse to accept it; he cannot send the measure back for reconsideration.
Constitutional Amendment Bill President must accept it


Qualified Veto Power of President

The American president has more veto authority than the Indian president, who only has three categories of veto power. This is the difference between the two presidents’ powers. The US President has designated the veto as the fourth of the four veto powers he holds.

Qualified Veto Power of President Meaning

If the President remands the measure to the legislature in certain circumstances for revision, the legislature will then remand the bill to the president with a special majority to override the president’s veto power. While the US President is required to return the measure within 10 days of the US Congress presenting it, the Indian President is not subject to any time constraints.

Veto Powers of President Use

Here are a few instances where the president of India used his constitutional veto power.

Absolute Veto Power of President Use

In 1954, Rajendra Prasad made advantage of it; he refused to approve the PEPSU appropriation bill, despite the fact that the legislature had already approved it. R Venkataraman opposes a member of the parliament’s sales allowance and pension.

Pocket Veto Power of President Use

President Zail Singh invoked his absolute veto power to halt the bill’s passage because it has drawn so much criticism for impinging on press freedom and free speech rights. Gyani Zail exercised his pocket veto by refusing to act on the Indian post office modification bill and keeping it with him for so long.

Suspensive Veto Power of President Use

The President’s Suspensive Veto Power allows him to remand a bill to Parliament for further consideration. The bill must be approved if it is sent to Parliament again. The national front administration abandoned the India Post Office Bill in 1989 when K Venkatraman invoked his suspensive veto power to send it back for reconsideration.

Veto Power of President UPSC

The president has the right to veto any bill that is passed in a hurried or incorrect manner. The sole purpose of the absolute veto is to prevent the passage of any laws that are unconstitutional. The purpose of the suspensive veto is to reexamine a crucial issue or a potential future circumstance that calls for reexamination. The pocket veto gave CEOs the freedom to respond to any political emergency that arose as a result of any legislation. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

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Veto Power of President

What is veto power of the president?

The power of the President to refuse to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevent its enactment into law is the veto.

What are the veto powers of India?

The president has three veto powers: absolute, suspension and pocket. The president can send the bill back to parliament for changes, which constitutes a limited veto that can be overridden by a simple majority.

What is the role of veto power?

The veto has been used to protect allies of the permanent members, and to prevent or stall UN peacekeeping or peace enforcement operations.

What is veto full form?

VETO is not an acronym, it means “I forbid” in the Latin language. A veto is a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a lawmaking body.

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