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Non-Metallic Minerals, Examples, Uses, Properties, Distribution Map

Non-Metallic Minerals

Non-metallic minerals are minerals that do not contain metal elements. Because they do not contain any metallic elements, Non-metallic Minerals are typically found in sedimentary rocks and young folded mountains.


Read More: Cobalt Ore

Non-Metallic Minerals Examples

Here are some examples of Non-Metallic Minerals:

  • Rocks and Stones: Limestone, granite, marble, sandstone, basalt, etc.
  • Industrial Minerals: Clay, kaolin, gypsum, silica sand, talc, feldspar, etc.
  • Construction Materials: Cement, sand, gravel, bricks, etc.
  • Fuel Minerals: Coal, oil, natural gas, etc.
  • Gemstones and Precious Minerals: Diamonds, emeralds, quartz, etc.

Read More: Copper Ore


Mica is a non-metallic mineral that is widely used in various industries. Mica is a transparent mineral found in igneous rocks. Individual mica crystals can be easily divided into super-thin elastic plates. There are two main types of mica- muscovite and biotite. The electrical insulation of electronic devices is the primary application for sheets and blocks of mica. Additionally, it serves as a cement and asphalt filler as well as a foundation for foundations. It is the ideal toothpaste and cosmetic due to its shiny, sparkly appearance.

India produces the most sheet mica in the world, making up more than 60% of the global mica trade. There are sizable amounts of mica-bearing pegmatite in Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Bihar, and the states of those four. The two biggest producers of mica worldwide are China and Finland.

Read More: Minerals

Uses of Mica

  • It is used in wallpapers to provide lustre.
  • It is also used in electrical condensers, insulating sheets between commutator segments, and heating components.

Read More: Types of Resources

World Wide Distribution of Mica

China is the largest producer of mica, followed by Finland. India has the largest mica reserves in the world.

Countries Regions
India Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh
Brazil Minas Gerais
USA Northern Carolina, Georgia, New Mexico
Russia Ural, Kola Peninsula, Siberia
China Hebei province
World Wide Distribution of Mica
World Wide Distribution of Mica

Read about: Energy Resources


Asbestos is a fibrous silicate mineral found in igneous rocks. There are two main ores of asbestos- chrysotile and actinolite. Asbestos is fireproof, heat resistant, and has low electrical conductivity.

Read More: Types of Rocks

Uses of Asbestos

Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral that was widely used in various industries due to its strong fibrous structure, heat resistance, and chemical stability. Some of the common uses of asbestos include:

  • Vinyl floor tiles, vinyl sheet flooring backing, and adhesives.
  • Panels for roofing and siding.
  • Walls and ceilings with textured paint and patching materials.
  • Asbestos paper, millboard, or cement sheets should be used to protect the walls and floors surrounding wood-burning stoves.

Read More: Aluminium Ore

World Wide Distribution of Asbestos

Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Brazil are the world’s top asbestos producers.

Countries Regions
Russia Urals
Canada Thetford mines in Quebec
China Gansu province
Brazil Sama’s Minaçu mine
World Wide Distribution of Asbestos
World Wide Distribution of Asbestos

Read about: Iron Ore


Limestone is a sedimentary rock that is composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The majority of its uses are in construction. Clay and powdered limestone are heated and used to create cement. It is a crucial component of toothpaste. Limestone is also used to clean pollutants out of blast furnaces used to make steel. The majority of limestone is produced in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. China, the United States, and India are the top three global producers of limestone.

Uses of Limestone

Limestone is widely distributed and is a valuable natural resource that has many uses in various industries, including:

  • Limestone is used as a building material and as an aggregate in the production of concrete, mortar, and cement.
  • It is used to improve soil quality by increasing its pH and reducing the effects of soil acidification.
  • Limestone is used as a flux to remove impurities in the production of iron and steel.
  • Limestone is used as a raw material in the production of various chemicals, including calcium oxide (quicklime), calcium hydroxide (slaked lime), and calcium carbonate.
  • Limestone is also used in the production of glass, paint, paper, and sugar, among other products.

Read More: Manganese Ore


Magnesite is a mineral composed of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Magnesite serves as a refractory material, a catalyst, a filler, and a raw ingredient in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, magnesium compounds, and fertilisers. With lower concentrations in Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, and Kerala, magnesite is primarily found in Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan. The top producer is Russia, followed by Slovakia and China.

Uses of Magnesite

Magnesite is a white or greyish mineral that occurs naturally and can also be produced through industrial processes. Some of the common uses of magnesite include:

  • Magnesite is used in the production of refractory materials, which are used to withstand high temperatures and corrosive conditions in furnaces, kilns, and other industrial applications.
  • Magnesite is used as a source of magnesium oxide (MgO), which is used in the production of various chemicals, including fertilizers, abrasives, and construction materials.
  • Magnesite is used as a soil amendment to improve soil fertility and reduce soil acidity.
  • Magnesite is also used in the production of magnesium metal, magnesium salts, and magnesium hydroxide.

Read about: Chromium Ore


Kyanite is a mineral that is composed of aluminium silicate (Al2SiO5). It is a blue or greenish mineral. Due to its resistance to high temperatures, kyanite, which is found in metamorphic aluminous rock, is largely employed in the cement, glass, and ceramic industries. With three grades of kyanite present here, India is the world leader in kyanite deposition. The best grade of kyanite is guaranteed by a higher aluminium content. The three states that generate the most kyanite in India are Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. Switzerland, Brazil, Russia, Kenya, Nepal, and Tanzania all have significant deposits.

Uses of Kyanite

Some of the common uses of kyanite include:

  • Kyanite is used in the production of refractory materials.
  • It is used as an abrasive material, due to its hardness and toughness.
  • Kyanite is used as a raw material in the production of ceramics, especially in the production of high-temperature insulation ceramics.
  • Kyanite is also used as a gemstone and as a mineral specimen in the jewellery and ornamental stone industries.

Read More: Physiography of India


Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O). Gypsum is a white, opaque compound made of hydrated calcium sulphate. It is mostly utilised in fertilisers that contain ammonium sulphate and in the cement industry. Additionally, it helps the soil retain moisture and absorb nitrogen in agriculture. In terms of output, Rajasthan is first, followed by Tamil Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh. Iran and the United States are the next two biggest producers after China.

Uses of Gypsum

Gypsum is a naturally occurring mineral that is widely distributed and is one of the most common minerals on Earth. Some of the common uses of gypsum include:

  • Gypsum is used as a building material in the construction of walls, ceilings, and roofs, as well as in the production of plaster, drywall, and joint compounds.
  • It is used as a soil amendment to improve soil structure, and fertility, and to reduce soil salinity.
  • It is used in the production of dental and surgical casts and molds.
  • It is used as a raw material in the production of various chemicals, including sulfuric acid and calcium sulfate.
  • It is also used in the production of blackboard chalk, and ceramics, and in the food industry as a firming agent for fruits and vegetables.

Read about: Nuclear Power Plants in India


Rocks, brine springs (saltwater springs), wells, salt pans in lakes, and seawater are all sources of salt. Less than 1% of the salt produced in India is extracted from rock in the states of Gujarat and Mandi. Approximately 10% of the supply is sourced from Rajasthan’s Sambhar Lake. Sea brine is used to manufacture salt in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Maharashtra. On the Gujarat coast, we manufacture over half of our salt. The United States, India, and China are the top three producers.

Read More: Natural Vegetation in India

Non-Metallic Minerals UPSC

Non-metallic minerals are those that are organic in origin, such as fossil fuels, or non-organic in nature, such as sand, gravel, mica, limestone, clay, and graphite. They do not include any metals. These materials don’t have the same metallic qualities as metals, such as strong electrical and thermal conductivity, lustre, rigour, and malleability, yet they are nonetheless crucial for many industries. Non Metallic Minerals are a crucial component of the Physical Geography and Human Geography sections of the IAS Exam syllabus.

Other Indian Geography Topics

Seasons of India Mountains of India
Mangrove Forests in India Important Mountain Passes in India
Monsoon in India
Indus River System
Climate of India
Rivers of India
Tributaries of Ganga
National Parks in India
Important Dams in India
Wildlife Sanctuaries of India
Tiger Reserves in India
Northern Plains of India
Physiography of India
Important Lakes of India
Wetlands in India
Biodiversity in India
Natural Vegetation in India Earthquakes in India
Types of Soil in India
Ramsar Sites in India
Brahmaputra River System
Hydropower Plants in India
Nuclear Power Plants in India
Major Ports in India
Biosphere Reserves in India
Waterfalls in India

Other Fundamental Geography Topics

Solar System Types of Clouds
Structure of the Atmosphere Himalayan Ranges
Component of Environment
El Nino and La Nina
Coral Reef
Continental Drift Theory
Endogenic and Exogenic Forces
Indian Ocean Region
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean Dipole
Air Pollution
Environmental Impact Assessment
Tropical Cyclone
Western Disturbances
Types of Rocks

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What are the non-metallic materials?

Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, silicon, boron, tellurium, and selenium are among the non-metallic elements in the periodic table. Additionally, they are made up of noble gases and halogens including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

What are 5 nonmetallic minerals?

Minerals devoid of metals are referred to as non-metallic minerals. Limestone, mica, gypsum, coal, dolomite, phosphate, salt, and granite are a few non-metallic mineral examples. Coal and petroleum are examples of non-metallic minerals.

What are the examples of Non-metallic minerals?

Building materials including stone, clay, and sand, salt deposits, natural jewels, mineral deposits with vital chemicals, and fertilisers are just a few examples of non-metallic minerals.

What are the first 20 non-metals?

Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Chlorine, and Argon are the non-metals in the first twenty elements.

Is Diamond a non-metal?

Diamond is merely an allotrope of carbon; it is in no manner a metal. It doesn't display any of the physical or chemical characteristics of metals, such as their electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility, or how they react to acids or salts, among other things. If you trust the periodic chart, carbon is truly a nonmetal.


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