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Copper Ore, Uses, Properties, Distribution Map

Copper Ore

Copper ore can be found in both ancient and younger rock formations as veins and bedded deposits. Mining copper is an expensive and time-consuming process because most copper ores contain only a trace amount of metal. Copper is a soft brown metal found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. There are three primary Copper Ores viz. Chalcopyrite, copper sulfide, and basic carbonates. During the extraction of copper from ores, a few other minerals and metals, such as gold, silver, lead, zinc, etc., are also extracted. Copper is resistant to corrosion and does not rust.

Copper is a good electrical conductor and is ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire). It is a vital metal used in the automotive and defence industries, as well as in the electrical industry for the manufacture of wires, electric motors, transformers, and generators. To make stainless steel is alloyed with iron and nickel. Morel metal is created by alloying copper with nickel. Duralumin is a metal alloyed with aluminium. It is known as ‘brass’ when alloyed with zinc, and ‘bronze’ when alloyed with tin.

Read about: Iron Ore

Copper Ore Distribution in India

1. Chilpi Series

It encompasses parts of Madhya Pradesh’s Balaghat and Chhindwara districts. Quartzite, copper-pyrite, mica schist, and marble comprise the series. The copper from this series is used at the Malanjkhand Copper Plant.

2. Ghatsila

This copper smelting plant is located in Jharkhand. It is a refinery that uses electrolysis. It produces brass sheets. It also obtains gold, silver, and nickel from copper processing.

3. Khetri

It is an integrated copper mining and ore refining plant in Rajasthan’s Jhunjhunu District. It was founded in 1967. It also gets copper ore from Madhya Pradesh’s Malanjkhand copper mines. There is also a sulfuric acid plant and a fertiliser plant.

Read about: Energy Resources

4. Malanjkhand

Malanjkhand is an open cast copper mine in Madhya Pradesh’s Balaghat District. In Malanjkhand, a copper plant has been established. The copper ore is also sent to Rajasthan’s Khetri Copper Plant.

5. Rakha Initiative

The Rakha Copper Plant is located in the Rakha District of Jharkhand’s Singhbhum. It obtains copper ore from the Rakha mines.

6. Tajola

The Tajola Copper Plant is located in the Maharashtra town of Raigadh. Copper cathodes were imported for the plant. It produces copper rods.

Read More: Manganese Ore

Copper Ore Distribution in World

Chile is the world’s largest copper producer, followed by Peru. Other copper-producing countries include the USA, Canada, and Australia.

Country Areas
Chile Copper Mountain of Chuquicamata, El Teniente, Rio Blanco, Braden
Peru Moquegua region
USA Arizona, Globe, Miami, Nevada, New Mexico
Canada Sudbury, Lynn Lake, Sheridon
Sweden Falun Mine
Germany Mansfield
CIS Degtyarsk, Kazakhstan
Australia Mt Isa, Mt. Morgan

Copper Ore

Read about: Chromium Ore

Uses of Copper Ore

  • Copper is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is widely used in electrical works for making wires, generators, transformers, electronics, etc.
  • Due to its high malleability, copper is commonly used in the metallurgical industry. It is used to make cables, fittings, and parts for automobiles.
  • It is used to make many alloys. When combined with tin, it produces bronze. When it is mixed with gold, it produces guinea gold. With zinc, it produces brass, and with nickel, it produces monel metal. When copper is mixed with aluminium, it produces duralumin. An alloy is a combination of a metal with at least one other metal or nonmetal.

Read More: Cobalt Ore

Copper Ore Properties

  • Copper ore is found in a variety of mineral forms, such as sulfides, oxides, and carbonates. The copper content in copper ore can vary from less than 1% to over 50%.
  • Copper ore has a moderate hardness, typically ranging from 3 to 4 on the Mohs scale.
  • The specific gravity of copper ore ranges from 2.5 to 3.5, depending on the type and mineral content.
  • Copper ore is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  • Copper ore is not highly reactive, but can react with strong acids and oxidizing agents.
  • Copper ore can range in colour from metallic red to black, depending on the type and mineral content.
  • Copper ore is soft and malleable and can be easily bent or shaped without breaking. It also has high ductility, meaning it can be easily drawn into wires or sheets.

Copper Ore UPSC

India is unlucky in terms of copper reserves and production. Her total in-situ reserves are estimated to be around 712.5 million tonnes, which equates to 9.4 million tonnes of metal content. India is a poor country in terms of copper reserves and production. India has low-grade copper ore (less than 1% metal content) compared to the international average of 2.5 per cent.

Major copper ore deposits can be found in the districts of Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh), and Jhunjhunu and Alwar (Jharkhand) (Rajasthan). India is a poor country in terms of copper reserves and production. India has low-grade copper ore (less than 1% metal content) compared to the international average of 2.5 per cent.

Read More: Types of Resources

Other Indian Geography Topics

Seasons of India Mountains of India
Mangrove Forests in India Important Mountain Passes in India
Monsoon in India
Indus River System
Climate of India
Rivers of India
Tributaries of Ganga
National Parks in India
Important Dams in India
Wildlife Sanctuaries of India
Tiger Reserves in India
Northern Plains of India
Physiography of India
Important Lakes of India
Wetlands in India
Biodiversity in India
Natural Vegetation in India Earthquakes in India
Types of Soil in India
Ramsar Sites in India
Brahmaputra River System
Hydropower Plants in India
Nuclear Power Plants in India
Major Ports in India
Biosphere Reserves in India
Waterfalls in India

Other Fundamental Geography Topics

Solar System Types of Clouds
Structure of the Atmosphere Himalayan Ranges
Component of Environment
El Nino and La Nina
Coral Reef
Continental Drift Theory
Endogenic and Exogenic Forces
Indian Ocean Region
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean Dipole
Air Pollution
Environmental Impact Assessment
Tropical Cyclone
Western Disturbances
Types of Rocks

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Where is the most copper located in the world?

Chile is the world's leading copper producer, accounting for 27% of global copper output. Furthermore, the country is home to the world's two largest mines, Escondido and Collahuasi. Chile is followed by Peru, another South American country that accounts for 10% of global output.

What is the Distribution of copper in India?

Nearly 95% of copper is distributed in Madhya Pradesh's Balaghat and Betul districts, Jharkhand's Singhbhumi and Hazaribagh districts, Rajasthan's Jhunjhunu, Alwar, Udaipur, and Rajsamand districts, Andhra Pradesh's Guntur and Kurnool districts, and Karnataka's Chitradurg district.

Where is copper found naturally?

The copper metal occurs naturally, but minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite are by far the most abundant sources. Smelting, leaching, and electrolysis are used to extract copper from these ores and minerals. Chile, Peru, and China are the three major copper-producing countries.

Who is the largest producer of copper in India?

Madhya Pradesh is India's leading copper producer. It accounts for 53% of copper production in this country. Rajasthan accounts for 43% of copper production in India, while Jharkhand accounts for 4%.

Which is the largest reserve of copper in India?

The Malanjkhand copper deposit, located 20 kilometres from Kanha National Park, is India's single largest copper deposit, accounting for nearly 70% of the country's reserves and accounting for roughly 80% of HCL's total copper production.


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