Hydropower Plants in India
Hydropower Plants in India: One of the most affordable and non-polluting sources of energy is hydropower. Hydroelectricity is a phrase used to describe power produced by water. Hydroelectricity is defined as energy produced through the utilization of falling or moving water’s gravitational force. One of the most popular methods of producing electricity because it doesn’t directly produce trash or experience depletion.
In terms of installed capacity, India has an estimated 148,700 MW of hydroelectric potential, of which 42,783 MW (28.77%) has already been produced and 13,616 MW (9.2%) is still under construction.
List of Hydropower Plants in India
Here’s the complete updated list of Hydropower Plants in India:
|State||River||Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Andhra Pradesh||Krishna||Nagarjunasagar Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Andhra Pradesh||Krishna||Srisailam Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Andhra Pradesh, Orissa||Machkund||Machkund Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Gujarat||Narmada||Sardar Sarovar Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Baira||Baira-Siul Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Sutlej||Bhakra Nangal Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Beas||Dehar Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Sutlej||Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Chenab||Salal Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Jhelum||Uri Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Jharkhand||Subarnarekha||Subarnarekha Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Karnataka||Kalinadi||Kalinadi Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Karnataka||Sharavathi||Sharavathi Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Karnataka||Kaveri||Shivanasamudra Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Kerala||Periyar||Idukki Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Madhya Pradesh||Sone||Bansagar Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Madhya Pradesh||Narmada||Indira Sagar Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh||Rihand||Rihand Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Maharashtra||Koyna||Koyna Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Manipur||Leimtak||Loktak Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Odisha||Sileru||Balimela Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Odisha||Mahanadi||Hirakud Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Sikkim||Rangit||Rangit Hydroelectric Power Plant|
|Sikkim||Teesta||Teesta Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Uttarakhand||Bhagirathi||Tehri Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Baspa||Baspa-II Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Satluj||Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Electric Power Plant|
|Himachal Pradesh||Beas||Pandoh Dam|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Chenab||Dulhasti|
Hydropower Plants in India Map
Hydroelectric Power Plant Working
A contemporary hydropower plant essentially consists of a dam, a reservoir, penstocks, turbines, and generators. The reservoir houses the “fuel” and enables managers to regulate the flow of water to the turbines. As most of the silt and debris in the water settle at the bottom and away from the intake area, it also works as a decanter.
The intake (dam gates) and penstock provide the turbines with water from the reservoir. The water is further cleaned by a filtration system at the intake to make sure that it is mostly free of suspended particulates, which could harm the turbine blades. The governor, brakes, gate controls, and other hydraulic systems cooperate to open and close the apertures that permit water to flow from the reservoir downstream.
The contemporary turbine is a development of the ancient water wheel. The Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine, and Pelton turbine are the three primary varieties, and they are all named after their creators. They differ mostly in their blade shape and design. Regardless of design, the turbine turns mechanical energy into the kinetic energy of rising or falling water. The generator that transforms the mechanical energy into electricity is connected to the turbine via a shaft that runs through its rotor. Each hydroelectric plant’s turbines are constructed to order maximum efficiency.
Although the processes of hydropower are anything but basic and easy, the fundamentals are. Each contemporary hydroelectric power plant depends on a wide range of intricate systems that track, regulate, and enhance conditions to guarantee appropriate performance. Moving parts’ friction and wear and tear are reduced by bearings and lubrication systems. The particles that can damage turbine blades are captured by filters. The penstock gates are opened and closed by strong hydraulic systems. In order to avoid overheating and fires in transformers, cables, switchgear, and other electrical and mechanical mechanisms, cooling systems regulate temperatures.
Hydroelectric Power Plant Advantages
Hydropower is a renewable energy source since it utilizes water rather than consuming it in the process of producing electricity, allowing this precious resource to be used for other purposes. There are extremely few recurrent costs, thus there are no significant long-term expenses because it is a renewable source of energy without any consumable components. In comparison to power produced by coal and gas-fired plants, it is less expensive. Additionally, because it doesn’t use fossil fuels, it is more reliable and eliminates financial losses brought on by frequency changes.
Hydropower stations are the preferred solution for meeting peak loads in grids due to their unique capabilities of quick starting and closing. The operational needs of hydro & thermal stations are complimentary and the balanced mix helps in the optimal utilization of the capacity.
The pattern of hydropower generation matches the seasonal load curves of regional grids. The system has a high load factor during the summer and monsoon seasons when hydroelectric power plants generate more energy due to a heavy agricultural workload. Weather-beating loads will be handled by thermal stations running at base load and hydro stations running at peak load during the winter.
Hydroelectric Power Plant Disadvantages
The production of electricity using hydropower requires a significant investment in capital. Diversion of forest land is occasionally necessary since hydropower projects are typically located in hilly regions, where the amount of forest cover is comparably better than in plain regions. Land submergence is brought on by hydropower projects, resulting in the extinction of wildlife and plants and widespread displacement. A sizable portion of the agricultural land is underwater.
Due to lengthy land acquisition and resettlement processes, difficult planning procedures, a lack of enabling infrastructures, such as transmission, an inadequate market size, and long-term finance, many contemporary hydropower projects have experienced delays. Numerous hydroelectric projects (HEPs) in India are inactive as a result of legal disputes over the environment, local unrest, financial strain, and uninterested buyers. Over the past ten years, just 10,000 MW of additional hydropower could be added. Conflicts between riparian States frequently cause the building of HEPs to be delayed because water and water power are State matters; the Subansiri HEP is an excellent example of this.
Hydropower Plants in India UPSC
- The largest hydroelectric power plant in India that has been completed is the Koyna Hydroelectric Project. It can produce 1960 MW of power.
- The Shivanasamudra hydroelectric power station was the first hydroelectric power facility.
- Tehri Dam is India’s tallest structure, and Tehri Hydro Electric Power Plant is the highest hydroelectric power facility in the nation. NTPC has now acquired control of the project (Since 2019).
- The Srisailam Hydro Power Plant is India’s third-largest operational facility.
- The largest underground hydroelectric power plant in the nation is the Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Plant.
- The second-largest concrete dam in the world is the Sardar Sarovar Dam.
Hydropower Plants in India FAQs
Q. Which is the highest hydropower plant in India?
Ans. Topping the list of hydroelectric power plants in India is the Tehri Dam in Uttarakhand, the highest hydroelectric power project in the country.
Q. Which is the first hydropower plant in India?
Ans. The first hydroelectric power plant in India was installed in Darjeeling, West Bengal. A project with a capacity of 130 kW was installed at Sidrapong (Darjeeling) in the year 1897. This hydroelectric power plant was also the first hydroelectric power plant in Asia.
Q. Which state is the largest producer of hydro energy in India in 2022?
Ans. With a total capacity of 47,057 MW, India is the seventh-largest producer of hydroelectric energy in the world.
Q. Where is the world’s largest hydropower plant?
Ans. As of 2021, the world’s largest hydroelectric dam based on generation capacity was the Three Gorges dam built on the Yangtze River in China. The dam was equipped with 34 turbo generators and the power plant had a power generation capacity of 22.5 gigawatts.
Q. Which is the highest dam in the world?
Ans. Currently, the tallest dam in the world is the Nurek Dam on the Vakhsh River in Tajikistan. It is 984 feet (300 meters) tall. Hoover Dam is 726.4 feet (221.3 meters) tall. Today, Hoover Dam still ranks in the top 20 of the tallest dams in the world, but only in the concrete gravity and arch categories.