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Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was an Indian politician, philosopher, and statesman who served as the second president of India from 1962 to 1967. He previously served as the first vice president of India from 1952 to 1962. He was the second ambassador of India to the Soviet Union from 1949 to 1952.
Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was an Indian statesman, philosopher, politician, and academic. He was India’s second President and first Vice President. As a writer, Radhakrishnan dedicated his life to elucidating, defending, and promoting his religion, which he variously referred to as Hinduism, Vedanta, and the religion of the Spirit. He aimed to demonstrate the intellectual and ethical viability of Hinduism.
He frequently exhibits comfort with both Indian and Western intellectual settings, and his writing frequently incorporates both Western and Indian sources. As a result, Radhakrishnan has gained praise in academic circles as a representation of Hinduism in the West.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan History
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a well-known Indian philosopher, academic, and statesman, had a major impact on the development of India’s intellectual and educational climate in the 20th century. On September 5, 1888, he was born in Tiruttani, a town in what is now Tamil Nadu but was once the Madras Presidency of British India. Radhakrishnan was elected as India’s first vice president in 1952 and held the position till 1962. During his time as Vice President, he was renowned for providing dignified and efficient leadership. He was elected president of India in 1962 and served in that capacity until 1967. He placed a strong emphasis on the value of culture and education during his reign.
As a visionary philosopher, an advocate for education, and a statesman who represented India on the international stage, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan is remembered. His initiatives to advance knowledge of Indian philosophy and culture both in India and abroad have had a long-lasting effect. He went away on April 17, 1975, but generations of academics, teachers, and leaders in India and elsewhere are still motivated by his legacy.
Who is Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan?
Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan a leader, politician, philosopher, and academic from India, . He first served as India’s vice president before becoming the nation’s second president. Writing about, defending, and promoting his beliefs—which he referred to as Hinduism, Vedanta, and the religion of the Spirit—was Radhakrishnan’s life’s work. He made an effort to show how his Hinduism was both morally and intellectually sound. His prose contains both Western and Indian components, and he seems at home in both Indian and Western intellectual traditions. As a result, Radhakrishnan has received appreciation in academic circles as a representation of Hinduism in the West.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s Early Life
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on September 5th, 1888. He was born into a Telugu-speaking Niyogi Brahmin family in Tiruttani, Madras Presidency, British India, which is now Tamil Nadu, India. His mother’s name was Sarvepalli Sita, and his father was Sarvepalli Veeraswami, a subordinate revenue official working for a local zamindar. His family originates from Sarvepalli village in Andhra Pradesh’s Nellore district. He was raised in the cities of Thiruttani and Tirupati. Radhakrishnan received a number of scholarships throughout his academic career.
|Facts about Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan|
|Place of Birth||Thiruttani, Madras Presidency, British India (now in Tamil Nadu, India)|
|Died||17 April 1975 (aged 86) Madras (now Chennai), Tamil Nadu, India|
|Spouse Name||Sivakamu, Lady Radhakrishnan|
|Chidren||Five daughters and One son|
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Education
- He studied in Thiruttani’s K.V. High School for his primary education.
- He transferred to the Government High Secondary School in Walajapet and the Hermannsburg Evangelical Lutheran Mission School in Tirupati in 1896.
- He registered at Vellore’s Voorhees College to complete his high school education.
- After completing First of Arts, he applied to Madras Christian at the age of 17.
- In 1906, he obtained both a bachelor’s and a master’s degree from the same college.
- “The Ethics of the Vedanta and its Metaphysical Presuppositions,” Sarvepalli wrote for his bachelor’s degree thesis. It was created in reaction to the charge that the Vedanta philosophy disregarded ethics.
- Two of Radhakrishnan’s teachers, Rev. William Meston and Dr. Alfred George Hogg, gave his dissertation high marks. His thesis was published when Radhakrishnan was barely twenty years old.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Family
At the age of 16, Sivakamu and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan were wed. Radha Krishnan’s distant relative Sivakamu was born. For more than 51 years, Radhakrishnan and Sivakamu were a happy couple. Five daughters and one son were among Radhakrishnan’s six offspring. His son, the eminent historian Sarvepalli Gopal, was an Indian. He wrote the biographies of Jawaharlal Nehru and his father, Radhakrishnan: A Biography.
S. Radhakrishnan Academic Career
In April 1909, Radhakrishnan was appointed to the philosophy department at Madras Presidency College. He lectured at the Maharaja’s College in Mysore before being named Professor of Philosophy at the University of Mysore in 1918. While attending Maharaja’s College, he contributed a number of publications to famous magazines including The Quest, Journal of Philosophy, and International Journal of Ethics. In addition, he completed Rabindranath Tagore’s Philosophy, his debut book. He asserted that Tagore’s thought was “the genuine expression of the Indian spirit.” The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy, his second book, was released in 1920.
He was appointed as a professor of philosophy in 1921 and held the King George V Chair of Mental and Moral Science at the University of Calcutta. He attended the International Congress of Philosophy at Harvard University in September 1926 after attending the British Empire Universities Congress in June 1926 on behalf of the University of Calcutta. His acceptance of the Hibbert Lecture on the Ideals of Life, which he delivered at Manchester College, Oxford in 1929 and was later published in book form as “An Idealist View of Life,” was another important intellectual milestone during this time. Radhakrishnan received an invitation to Manchester College in 1929 to take over for outgoing principal J. Estlin Carpenter. As a result, he had the chance to educate University of Oxford undergraduates on comparative religion.
George V knighted him in June 1931 for his contributions to education, and the Earl of Willingdon, the Governor-General of India, formally invested him with his accolade in April 1932. He ceased using the title once India gained its independence and began using his academic title, Doctor. He was the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University from 1931 to 1936. At the University of Oxford, Radhakrishnan was selected as a Fellow of All Souls College and appointed the Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics in 1936.
In 1937, he was put forward for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Even until the 1960s, nominations for the prize kept coming in. He accepted an invitation in 1939 to take over as Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) from Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya. From January 1948 to January 1949, he served as its Vice-Chancellor.
S. Radhakrishnan Political Career
Radhakrishnan started his political career later in life after an academic career that showed promise. After his international influence, he began his political career. His support for renaming the Ceded Districts division of the Madras Presidency Rayalaseema came from his attendance at the Andhra Mahasabha in 1928. He was nominated to the League of Nations Committee for Intellectual Cooperation in 1931, where he rose to prominence as a Hindu authority on Indian thought and a persuasive interpreter of the significance of Eastern institutions in modern society in the eyes of the West. After India’s independence, Radhakrishnan became increasingly involved in both domestic and international politics.
From 1946 to 1951, Radhakrishnan served as the chairman of the Indian delegation and sat on the Executive Board of the newly established UNESCO. In the two years that followed India’s independence, Radhakrishnan also served in the Indian Constituent Assembly. Radhakrishnan had to strike a balance between the demands of the University Commission and his ongoing duties as the Spalding Professor at Oxford and his commitments to UNESCO and the Constituent Assembly. When the Universities Commission’s report was finished in 1949, Radhakrishnan was chosen to serve as India’s ambassador to Moscow by Jawaharlal Nehru, who was the country’s prime minister at the time.
He kept this position until 1952. Radhakrishnan was able to put his philosophical and political convictions into action when he was elected to the Rajya Sabha. Radhakrishnan was chosen as India’s first vice president in 1952, and he was chosen as the nation’s second president in 1962. Radhakrishnan observed a growing demand for world peace and intergroup harmony while he was in government. Radhakrishnan was made acutely aware of the significance of this need as he watched many world crises develop. When he was appointed Vice President, the Korean War had already begun.
Political disputes with China in the early 1960s, followed by hostilities between India and Pakistan, dominated Radhakrishnan’s administration. As a result of the Cold War’s division of East and West, both are on the defensive and distrustful of one another. Radhakrishnan questioned the polarising potential and domineering nature of what he perceived to be self-proclaimed international groups like the League of Nations. Instead, he argued for the advancement of an original internationalism that put a special emphasis on the metaphysical underpinnings of holistic experience. Only then will tolerance and respect for other cultures and nations be promoted.
Radha Krishnan Philosophical Thoughts
By defending Hinduism from misinformed Western criticism and incorporating Western intellectual and religious ideals, Radhakrishnan sought to meld Eastern and Western ideas.
One of the most effective spokespersons for Neo-most Vedanta was Radhakrishnan. Although he reworked Advaita Vedanta for a contemporary audience, his metaphysics was based on it. He was aware of the goodness and variety of human nature, which he believed to be supported by and founded in the ultimate, or Brahman.
For Radhakrishnan, theology and creeds are both intellectual formulations and representations of religious experience or intuitive beliefs. Advaita Vedanta received the highest rating from Radhakrishnan when it came to how each religion interpreted religious experience.
Radhakrishnan believed that Advaita Vedanta was the best representation of Hinduism since it was based on intuition as opposed to the intellectually mediated concepts of other religions.
Since Vedanta offers the most immediate intuitive experience and inner realisation, Radhakrishnan claims that it is the highest kind of religion. Radhakrishnan was critical of Western culture and philosophy despite his familiarity with it. He asserted that in spite of their assertions to the contrary, Western philosophers were inspired by religious ideas from their own culture.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Death
On November 26, 1956, Radha Krishnan’s Sivakamu passed away. He was a widower until his death and never got married again. Radhakrishnan retired from public life in 1967. He lived in the home he created in Mylapore, Madras, during the final eight years of his life. The death of Radhakrishnan happened on April 17, 1975.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
In 1954, Radhakrishnan received the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour. For his contributions to education, King George V knighted him in 1931. In 1954, Germany awarded him the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts in recognition of his achievements. He received the Sash First Class of the Order of the Aztec Eagle from Mexico in 1954 as a mark of honour.
In 1961, he received the German Book Trade Peace Prize. He was the first recipient of the Sahitya Akademi fellowship, the highest prize bestowed by the Sahitya Akademi on a writer, in 1968. In honour of Radhakrishnan’s conviction that educators should possess the best minds on the planet, India has observed Teacher’s Day on September 5 since 1962.
In 1963, the United Kingdom recognised him by inducting him into the Order of Merit. He received a record-breaking 27 nominations for the Nobel Prize. 11 times for the Nobel Peace Prize and 16 times in literature. He was chosen as a Fellow of the British Academy in 1938.
He was awarded the Templeton Prize in 1975 for advocating nonviolence and sharing a universal understanding of God that encompassed understanding and compassion for all people.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s Literary works
The following the literary works by Dr. Sarvepali Radhakrishan:-
- In 1931, King George V knighted him for his contributions to education.
- In 1954, Radhakrishnan received the highest civilian award in India, the Bharat Ratna, Germany recognised him by awarding him the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts, and Mexico honours him by awarding him the Sash First Class of the Order of the Aztec Eagle.
- In 1961, he received the German Book Trade Peace Prize. He was the first recipient of the Sahitya Akademi fellowship, the highest prize bestowed by the Sahitya Akademi on a writer, in 1968.
- In honour of Radhakrishnan’s conviction that educators should possess the best minds on the planet, India has observed Teacher’s Day on September 5 since 1962.
- In 1963, the United Kingdom bestowed upon him the accolade of membership in the Order of Merit. He received a record-breaking 27 nominations for the Nobel Prize. 11 times for the Nobel Peace Prize and 16 times in literature. He was chosen as a Fellow of the British Academy in 1938.
- He was awarded the Templeton Prize in 1975 for advocating nonviolence and sharing a universal understanding of God that encompassed understanding and compassion for all people.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan UPSC
One of the most well-known and eminent Indian philosophers in academic circles of the 20th century was the academic, philosopher, and statesman Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Writing about, defending, and spreading his religion—which he variously referred to as Hinduism, Vedanta, and the religion of the Spirit—was the focus of Radhakrishnan’s whole life and literary career. He was well-known for his academic prowess and as a teacher rather than for being known as Radhakrishnan’s President.