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Manganese Ore, Uses, Properties, Importance, Distribution

Manganese Ore

Manganese is an important raw material used in the smelting of iron ore and the production of ferroalloys. Manganese deposits can be found in nearly every geological formation. It is, however, primarily associated with the Dharwar system. Odisha is the leading manganese producer and major mines in Odisha are concentrated in the country’s central iron ore belt, specifically in Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi, and Bolangir.

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What is Manganese?

Manganese is a ferroalloy metal. It is a hard, heavy, and silvery metal. It is exploited as ores as well as nodules on the deep seafloor. There are two types of manganese ores namely:

  • Pyrolusite and
  • Psilomelane

Manganese Resources in India

India is a major producer of manganese, a vital industrial metal used in steelmaking, batteries, and other applications. Here’s an overview of manganese resources in India:

Reserves and Distribution

  • India boasts abundant manganese reserves, estimated at around 432 million tonnes as of 2022.
  • Odisha leads the pack with the highest reserves, accounting for 44% of the total.
  • Other significant contributors include Karnataka (22%), Madhya Pradesh (12%), Maharashtra & Goa (7% each), Andhra Pradesh (4%), and Jharkhand (2%).
  • Manganese ore deposits are primarily associated with the Gondite and Kodurite series of rocks in these states.

Production and Major Producers

  • India is also a major manganese producer, contributing roughly 5% of the global output.
  • In 2021-22, the country produced 2.45 million tonnes of manganese ore.
  • Madhya Pradesh is the top producer, followed by Maharashtra and Odisha.
  • Major mining companies include MOIL (Manganese Ore India Limited), Sandur Manganese & Iron Ores Ltd, and Tata Steel.

The districts with significant manganese resources in India are given below:

State Districts
  • Sundargarh
  • Ganjam
  • Koraput
Madhya Pradesh
  • Balaghat
  • Chhindwara
  • Jhabua
  • Bhandara
  • Nagpur
Andhra Pradesh
  • Srikakulam
  • Visakhapatnam
  • Panchmahal
  • Several districts across the state, including Chitradurga, Ballari, and Chikmagalur.
Goa Bicholim, Sanguem and Sataritalukas

Manganese Ore Distribution in India

State Percentage of Production
  • This country produces approximately 27.66% of India’s manganese.
  • The main belt is located in the districts of Nagpur and Bhandara.
  • High-grade ore can also be found in the Ratnagiri district.
Andhra Pradesh
  • Manganese production accounts for 13% of total production in India.
  • Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam districts were involved.
  • Srikakulam district is known for being India’s first manganese ore producer (1892).
  • Cuddapah, Vijayanagaram, and Guntur are among the other manganese-producing districts.
Madhya Pradesh
  • This country produces approximately 27.59 per cent of India’s manganese ore.
  • The main belt runs through Balaghat and Chhindwara districts.
  • It is simply an extension of the Nagpur Bhandara belt into Maharashtra.
  • Production is currently at 24%. [First in reserves, second in production]
  • Sundargarh has Gondite [regional names] deposits, and Kalahandi and Koraput have Kodurite and Khondolite deposits.
  • Manganese is also mined from laterite deposits in the districts of Bolangir and Sambalpur.
  • Another major producer is Karnataka, which has mines in Dharwar, Ballari, Belagavi, North Canara, Chikkmagaluru, Shivamogga, and other locations.
Other Producers
  • Manganese is also produced in Goa, Gujarat, Panchmahals and Vadodara, Rajasthan, Udaipur and Banswara, and Jharkhand’s Singhbhum and Dhanbad.
  • Rajasthan, Gujarat, and West Bengal account for nearly 3% of total production.

Manganese Ore Distribution in World

China is the largest manganese producer, followed by South Africa. Manganese is also widely distributed in India, Ghana, and Brazil.

Country Regions
China Guangxi, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces.
South Africa Postmasburg, Kuruman and west of Kimberly
CIS Nikopol and Tokmak in Ukraine, Chiature in Georgia, Ulu Teljak in the Urals, Usa in Kuzbass.
India Balaghat, Vishakhapatnam, Singhbhum, Goa
Ghana Nsuta
Brazil Near Mecapa in Amapa, Minas Gerais, Urucum in western Mato Grosso.
Others Deposits as nodules, especially in the Pacific Ocean.

Manganese Ore Uses

Manganese has a variety of uses, including:

  • Manganese is far too brittle to be valuable as a pure metal. It is primarily found in alloys such as steel.
  • Steel contains about 1% manganese, which increases its strength. It also improves workability and resistance. It is used in railway tracks, safes, rifle barrels, and prison bars.
  • It is used in various chemical industries as an oxidizer to prepare disinfectants and other chemicals.
  • It is also used in making electric batteries, paints, and plastics.

Manganese Ore Importance

Manganese ore is important for several reasons:

  • Manganese is an extremely hard and brittle silvery grey mineral.
  • It is always found with iron, laterite, and other minerals.
  • Manganese alloys are an important component of steel production, and steel is one of the most important indicators of a country’s industrial economy’s growth.
  • In recent years, the global trade volume of manganese ore has increased, including in India.
  • India is currently one of the world’s largest manganese ore importers.

Manganese UPSC

India has a diverse range of mineral resources due to its diverse geological structure. India processes the world’s second-largest manganese reserves, after Zimbabwe. India is the world’s fifth-largest producer, trailing only China, Gabon, South Africa, and Australia. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka are the major manganese ore-producing states. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh produce more than half of India’s manganese. This article will explain Manganese Resources in India, which will help you prepare for the UPSC Civil Service Exam in Geography.

Other Important Topics
Wetlands in India Types of Soils
Mountains of India Types of Rocks
Land Reforms in India Energy Resources
Cobalt Ore
 Aluminium Ore


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Manganese Ore FAQs

Where is manganese found?

Manganese mining is primarily concentrated in China, Africa, Australia, and Gabon. The metal is produced by reducing manganese oxide with sodium, magnesium, or aluminium, or by electrolysis of manganese sulphate. Manganese nodules have been discovered on the ocean floor.

Is manganese safe to eat?

Manganese in food and beverages has not been shown to be harmful in studies. However, some people have developed manganese toxicity after drinking water containing extremely high levels of manganese. Inhaling large amounts of manganese dust from welding or mining work is another cause of manganese toxicity.

Is manganese harmful to humans?

As a result, too little or too much manganese may be harmful. Breathing high concentrations of manganese dust and fumes (e.g., welding) over time has been linked to nervous system toxicity in workers, resulting in a syndrome similar to Parkinson's Disease.

What's manganese used for?

Manganese is a coenzyme that aids in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and cholesterol. It also aids enzymes in bone formation as well as the immune and reproductive systems. Manganese, in conjunction with vitamin K, aids in wound healing by clotting the blood.

Which food has manganese?

Manganese is found in many foods, including whole grains, clams, oysters, mussels, nuts, soybeans and other legumes, rice, leafy vegetables, coffee, tea, and many spices, including black pepper.

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