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Northern Plains of India
After the Indian desert, the Northern Plains are the second-youngest physiographic region in India. The Shiwalik range on the northern side, the Desert on the western side, the Peninsular Plateau on the southern side, and the Puruvachal Hills on the eastern side all about the Northern Plains.
Northern Plains of India is created by the alluvial deposits of the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra river systems and their tributaries. Stretches of the Northern Plains from west to east are around 2400 km long, and those from north to south are about 150–320 km long. The Northern Plains of India span an area of over 7 lakh square kilometers. Because of the abundant water supply, agreeable climate, and fertile alluvial soil, there is a large population.
The river has a mild slope, which causes the water to flow through it slowly. Ambala, which is in the state of Haryana, has the highest elevation (291 meters above sea level), creating water divides between the Ganga and Indus river systems.
The Yamuna catchment in the west and the Bangladesh border in the east are both located between the Ganga plains. Between the Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau, a portion of Peninsular India was downwarped, resulting in the formation of the lower Ganga plain, which was then sediment by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
These plains’ primary topographical features include levees, abandoned golf courses, and the Bhabar, Tarai, Bhangar, and Khadar plains. The majority of the rivers continually change their paths, rendering this region susceptible to periodic floods. In this regard, the Kosi River has a great deal of notoriety. It’s been known as the “Sorrow of Bihar” for a long time. The Ganga plains are home to the northern states of Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, a portion of Jharkhand, and West Bengal.
The largest delta in the world is the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. Tidal woods known as the Sunderbans encompass a sizable portion of the coastal delta. The Sundari tree, which thrives in marshes, gives the Sunderbans, the world’s biggest mangrove swamp, its name. Crocodiles and the Royal Tiger live there.
On the upper Ganges alluvial plain in northwest UP, there is a low-lying alluvial tract called Rohilkhand. It travels between the Avadh Plain and the Ganga River (West) (East). It was referred to as Madhyadesh in the Mahabharata and is named after the Rohilla tribe. Pathan highlanders of the Yusufzai tribe were known as rohillas.
It located in the middle of Uttar Pradesh, between Purvanchal (E) and Rohilkhand (W). It was formerly referred to as India’s granary. It is renowned for its distinctive cultures and cuisines as well. It includes the cities of Kanpur, Rae Barelly, and Faizabad.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau on the west and the Ganges River’s main flow, which has undergone continual change, on the east are both located in the Rarh region. The lower Gangetic plains to the west of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly and south of the Ganges River are collectively referred to as the Rarh lowlands. Alluvial deposits from a long time ago produced these plains. The primary river is the Damodar, and the elevation ranges from 75 to 150 m. The area is heavily industrialized. Earlier, it was well-known for its terrible floods.
The only plain in the peninsular plateau that is deserving of the name is the Chhattisgarh plain. It is a dip with a saucer-like shape that the upper Mahanadi drains. Between the Maikala Range and the Odisha hills is the entire basin. It is bordered to the north by the Chota Nagpur plateau, to the east by the Raipur Upland, to the southeast by the Bastar plateau, and to the west by the Maikala Range.
The area was previously governed by the Haithaivanshi Rajputs, whose 36 forts (Chhattisgarh) are where the name of the region comes from. Shales and limestone are arranged in nearly horizontal strata throughout the basin. It is referred to be India’s “rice bowl.” Its development has been supported by abundant coal reserves as well as sizeable amounts of iron ore, bauxite, manganese, and commercial clays.
The plain’s overall elevation varies from 250 metres in the east to 330 metres in the west. The principal commercial hubs are Bhilai, Bilaspur, Raipur, Raigarh, and Durg. Other urban areas in development include Rajgarh, Korba, and Nandgaon.
Northern Plains of India Physiographic Divisions
- At the break in the slope, a thin band called Bhabar extends between 8 and 10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills. Because of this, the streams and rivers that originate in the mountains often disappear in this area and leave behind heavy materials made of rocks and boulders.
- There are only giant trees with deep roots in the area, which makes it unsuitable for cultivation.
- There are building materials available, but be aware of large boulders.
- Recently, footloose businesses have received encouragement.
- South of Bhabar, a marshy tract reappears; this area is known as Terai.
- The lush natural vegetation here supports a wide range of fauna.
- These forests are cut down in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh to make way for the cultivation of wheat, rice, and sugarcane.
- It symbolizes the ancient alluvium-formed uplands.
- The calcium-rich, dark-colored alluvium is known as kankar.
- Clay makes up the majority of Bhangar’s soil, but loam and sandy-loam can occasionally be found there as well.
- The presence of saline and alkaline efflorescence’s known as Reh in dry places.
- If the river is known as Khadar, its younger alluvium of flood plains is light in colour and deficient in calcareous materials.
- It is a continuation of the Khadar Plains. Uplands are referred to as Chars and marshy terrain as Bils.
Northern Plains of India Regional Division
- To the west of Aravalis, this contains the Marusthali and Rajasthan Bagar regions.
- Several brackish lakes are present in this area as a result of the marine submergence that once existed. Sambhar is one such lake.
- Though several inland drainage systems exist, only Luni reaches the ocean.
- Sweet in the upper areas, Luni becomes salty in the lower regions.
- The area is covered in dunes and sand.
- It is 25 cm Isohyet away from the Bagar district.
- Bagar is a fertile, semi-arid region that is drained by the Luni river in the south.
Punjab Haryana plain
- These are the result of river deposits from the Satluj Beas and Ravi rivers.
- The Doabs, or highlands between these rivers, are particularly fruitful.
- Due to little streams called Chos, the northern half of the region has seen significant erosion.
Northern Plains of India Formation
The northern portion of the Indian Peninsula sunk and formed a sizable basin as a result of the Himalayas’ uplift in the Tethys Sea. Sediments from rivers that originated in the peninsula in the south and the northern mountains filled that basin. The vast alluvial deposits are responsible for the formation of India’s northern plains.
Northern Plains of India Map
States in Northern Plains of India
- Uttar Pradesh
- West Bengal
These are the states that make up the Northern Plains in India.
Northern Plains of India Rivers
These are the major rivers of Northern Plains of India
Crops Grown in Northern Plains of India
- Due to the fertile soil in this area, the Northern Plains are best suited for agriculture.
- Some of the crops planted here are maize, millets, jute, sugar cane, rice, and wheat.
Northern Plains of India Significance
Fertile soil, numerous rivers, and a hospitable climate are the best for human settlement. There are numerous dams built for multiple purposes, including water for irrigation and producing electricity. Numerous works of literature, fine art, and architecture, as well as sacred rivers, have social and religious significance. The navigable rivers in the plains facilitate trade and commerce by facilitating simple transit.
Northern Plains of India Features
- The Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra river systems’ alluvial deposits, as well as those of their tributaries, are what created the northern plains.
- The soil on this plain is entirely alluvial.
- The plains are ideal for agriculture since they are quite fertile.
- Due to their fertile fields and agriculture-based economy, these plains are heavily populated.
Northern Plains of India FAQs
Q What is the Northern Plains of India?
Ans. Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra, along with their tributaries, are the three principal river systems that have interacted to create the northern plain. 7 lakh square kilometres make up this plain. A densely inhabited physiographic division, the plain is approximately 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km wide.
Q Where is Northern Plains in India?
Ans. The states of the Northern Plains are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.
Q What are the 4 types of Northern Plains?
Ans. The Northern Plains are divided into four regions based on variations in relief from north to south. They are bhabar, terai, bhangar and khadar.
Q What are the features of Northern Plains?
Ans. The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits of the three major river systems of the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is completely formed of alluvial soil. The plains are very fertile and are best suited for agriculture.
Q What is the another name of Northern Plains?
Ans. Indo-Gangetic Plain, also called North Indian Plain, extensive north-central section of the Indian subcontinent, stretching westward from (and including) the combined delta of the Brahmaputra River valley and the Ganges (Ganga) River to the Indus River valley.
Q What is the importance of Northern Plains?
Ans. Northern Plains are very important because the rivers that flow in this region are navigable, it has flat land which is good for roads and railways and it provides best Irrigational facilities.
Other Indian Geography Topics
Other Fundamental Geography Topics