The Mediterranean Sea is a large, inland sea located between Europe, Africa, and Asia. It covers an area of about 2.5 million square km and is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Strait of Gibraltar. The Mediterranean Sea, which connects to the Atlantic Ocean, is bounded on three sides by land: on the north, Southern Europe and Anatolia; on the south, North Africa; and on the east, the Levant. The Mediterranean Basin also encircles it.
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Mediterranean Sea in World Map
Here is the Map of the Mediterranean Sea to understand the geographical location of the Mediterranean Sea region:
Mediterranean Sea Countries
Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey are among the 21 nations that share a border with the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean to the west via the Strait of Gibraltar, the Black Sea to the east via the Dardanelles Straits, and the Red Sea to the south via the Suez Canal. Africa’s Nile River empties into the Mediterranean Sea.
Additionally, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar, Akrotiri, and Dhekelia, as well as the Gaza Strip, have coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea. The term “Palestine” has historically been used to refer to the region that includes the State of Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.
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Mediterranean Sea Geography
The Mediterranean Sea is roughly oval-shaped, with a long axis running east to west and a short axis running north to south. The Mediterranean Sea is defined by the coastlines of Europe, Africa, and Asia and is split into two deep basins, according to the International Hydrographic Organization. It stretches from the Strait of Gibraltar in the west to the entrances to the Dardanelles and the Suez Canal in the east.
- Bays and Gulfs: The Mediterranean has several large bays and gulfs, including the Gulf of Sidra in Libya, the Gulf of Gabès in Tunisia, and the Gulf of Antalya in Turkey.
- Straits: The Mediterranean is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and to the Red Sea through the Suez Canal.
- Islands: The Mediterranean has several large islands, including Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, and Ibiza, as well as numerous smaller islands.
- Western Basin: A line connecting Cape Spartel’s and Cape Trafalgar’s (both in Spain) westernmost points (Africa). The west coast of Italy is in the northeast. A line in the Strait of Messina connecting Cape Peloro, Sicily’s easternmost point, with Cape Paci, the cape’s northernmost point (15°42′E). Sicily’s northern coastline.
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Mediterranean Sea Significance
The Mediterranean Sea has significant cultural, historical, economic, and environmental importance:
- Historical: The Mediterranean has been an important trade route for thousands of years and has seen the rise and fall of many civilizations, including the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans.
- Cultural: The Mediterranean basin is home to diverse cultures, including Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, and has greatly influenced art, architecture, literature, music, and religion.
- Economic: The Mediterranean is a major shipping lane for goods and oil, and its coastline is a popular tourist destination.
- Environmental: The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea with a unique climate and ecosystem, making it a biodiversity hotspot, but also vulnerable to pollution and overfishing.
Mediterranean Sea UPSC
The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental body of water that divides Europe from Africa and spans from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Asia in the east. It is frequently referred to as the birthplace of Western civilization.
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