Home   »   Geography   »   Local Winds

Local Winds of the World, Types, Map, List of Major Local Winds

Local Winds

Local winds are those kinds of winds that are solely caused by local conditions. Local winds are caused by the air moving between high and low-pressure systems in confined spaces. Each form of wind differs somewhat from the others since there are various sorts of winds. Local winds will always have a big impact on a region’s climate.

These local winds play an important role in the weather and climate of a particular locality. Some of the well-known local winds are found in different parts of the world.

Read More: Types of Winds

List of Local Winds

Here we are providing a List of Major Local Winds and their Type or Nature:

Name of Local winds Type/Nature of Local Winds
Harmattan (Guinea Doctor) Hot and Dry wind
Khamsin Hot and Dry wind
Foehn Hot and Dry wind
Solano Hot and Moist wind
Siroco Hot and Moist wind
Chinook (Snow eaters) Hot and Dry wind
Bora Cold and Dry wind
Mistral Cold wind
Punas Cold and Dry wind
Blizzard Cold wind
Purga Cold wind
Levanter Cold wind
Santa Ana Hot wind
Norwester Hot wind
Karaburun (black storm) Hot and Dusty wind
Calima Dust-laden Dry wind
Elephanta Moist wind in monsoon

Read More: Pressure Belts

Hot Local Winds

1. Loo

It is hot and dry. It blows very strongly over the northern plains of India and Pakistan in the summers. Their blow from west to east. They are usually experienced in the afternoons and the temperature varies between 45°C to 50°C.

2. Foehn

‘Foehn’ is the strong, dusty, dry and warm local wind. It develops on the leeward side of the Alps mountain ranges. It occurs due to a regional pressure gradient that forces the air to ascend and cross the barrier. This ascent sometimes causes precipitation on the windward side of the mountains.

After crossing the crest of the mountains, it starts descending on the leeward side a warm and dry wind. The temperature of the winds varies from 15°C to 20°C. This helps in the melting of snow. It makes the pasture land ready for animal grazing.

3. Chinook

‘Chinook’ is the name of a hot and dry local wind. It moves down the eastern slopes of the Rockies(the U.S.A. and Canada). The meaning of chinook is ‘snow eater’ as they help in the early melting of the snow.

4. Sirocco

‘Sirocco’ is a hot, dry dusty wind. It originates in the Sahara desert. It is the wind of spring. After crossing the Mediterranean sea, the Sirocco is slightly cooled by the moisture from the sea. Some of its local names are- Leveche in Spain, Khamsin in Egypt, and Gharbi in the Aegean Sea area.

5. Harmattan

Harmattan is a strong dry wind that blows over northwest Africa from the northeast. It blows directly from the Sahara desert. Thus, it is hot, dry, and dusty. It provides a welcome relief from the moist heat and is beneficial to people’s health hence also known as ‘the doctor’.

Read More: Atmospheric Pressure

Cold Local Winds

1. Mistral

Mistral’ is a cold wind of the Alps. It moves over France towards the Mediterranean Sea through the Rhone valley. They are cold, dry, and of high velocity. They reduce the temperature below the freezing point.

2. Bora

Bora’ is a cold, dry, high-speed north-easterly wind blowing down from the mountains in the Adriatic Sea region.

3. Blizzard

Blizzard is a violent wind. It is freezing, wind-laden with dry snow.

Read More: Chemical Weathering

Local Winds World Map

The wind is the horizontal movement of air. Below is a map of the Local Winds around the world.

Local Winds Diagram
Local Winds

Read More: Biological Weathering

Local Winds Significance

  • They deliver rain, which is necessary for the ripening of the nearby fruits to occur.
  • When warm air rises over the land, onshore winds are produced.
  • Strong winds have the effect of replenishing sizable reservoirs, which are essential for producing electricity and drinking water across the nation.

Read More: Types of Rocks

Local Winds UPSC

The air movement between low-pressure and high-pressure systems within confined spaces is what generates local winds. Each type of wind has its own distinct appearance because there are so many different kinds. It is crucial to comprehend what causes local winds because they frequently have a considerable impact on the local climate.

Because they have an impact on climatological traits like visibility and humidity, local winds play a significant role in weather and climate, both individually and collectively. Above all, they significantly affect the nation’s economy. You will learn about Local Winds in this article, which will help you with your preparation for the UPSC Civil Service exam in Geography Syllabus.

Other Indian Geography Topics

Seasons of India Mountains of India
Mangrove Forests in India Important Mountain Passes in India
Monsoon in India
Indus River System
Climate of India
Rivers of India
Tributaries of Ganga
National Parks in India
Important Dams in India
Wildlife Sanctuaries of India
Tiger Reserves in India
Northern Plains of India
Physiography of India
Important Lakes of India
Wetlands in India
Biodiversity in India
Natural Vegetation in India Earthquakes in India
Types of Soil in India
Ramsar Sites in India
Brahmaputra River System
Hydropower Plants in India
Nuclear Power Plants in India
Major Ports in India
Biosphere Reserves in India
Waterfalls in India

Other Fundamental Geography Topics

Solar System Types of Clouds
Structure of the Atmosphere Himalayan Ranges
Component of Environment
El Nino and La Nina
Coral Reef
Continental Drift Theory
Endogenic and Exogenic Forces
Indian Ocean Region
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean Dipole
Air Pollution
Environmental Impact Assessment
Tropical Cyclone
Western Disturbances
Types of Rocks

Sharing is caring!


What are local winds?

Local winds are caused by the air moving between high and low-pressure systems in confined spaces. Each form of wind differs somewhat from the others since there are various sorts of winds. Local winds will always have a big impact on a region's climate.

How local winds are formed UPSC?

Air travelling between minor low- and high-pressure systems produces local winds. Local winds can also be influenced by fluctuations in temperature and pressure, as well as in topography, or the size and shape of the Earth's surface features.

Is Chinook a local wind?

The local wind known as "Chinook" blows on the eastern or leeward side of the Rockies and is warm and dry (Prairies). Chinook is more prevalent from Colorado to British Columbia in Canada during the winter and early spring. After passing across the eastern Rockies, the winds have adiabatically warmed.

What is Foehn and Chinook?

Warm, dry downslope breezes known as "foehn" occur on the lee side of topographical barriers. Strong foehn winds, locally referred to as Chinooks, that flow down the eastern face of the Rocky Mountains are occasionally linked to wind erosion in southwest Alberta, Canada.

Which wind is called a snow eater?

A lot of the time, snow that is blanketed in the warm, dry, swift Chinook winds evaporates before it has an opportunity to melt. Within hours, these gusts can easily melt a foot of snow. Chinook winds are so frequently referred to as "snow eaters."

Which wind is Beneficial wind?

Foehn or Fohn is a Beneficial wind.


Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *