Local winds are those kinds of winds that are solely caused by local conditions. Local winds are caused by the air moving between high and low-pressure systems in confined spaces. Each form of wind differs somewhat from the others since there are various sorts of winds. Local winds will always have a big impact on a region’s climate.
These local winds play an important role in the weather and climate of a particular locality. Some of the well-known local winds are found in different parts of the world.
Read More: Types of Winds
List of Local Winds
Here we are providing a List of Major Local Winds and their Type or Nature:
|Name of Local winds||Type/Nature of Local Winds|
|Harmattan (Guinea Doctor)||Hot and Dry wind|
|Khamsin||Hot and Dry wind|
|Foehn||Hot and Dry wind|
|Solano||Hot and Moist wind|
|Siroco||Hot and Moist wind|
|Chinook (Snow eaters)||Hot and Dry wind|
|Bora||Cold and Dry wind|
|Punas||Cold and Dry wind|
|Santa Ana||Hot wind|
|Karaburun (black storm)||Hot and Dusty wind|
|Calima||Dust-laden Dry wind|
|Elephanta||Moist wind in monsoon|
Read More: Pressure Belts
Hot Local Winds
It is hot and dry. It blows very strongly over the northern plains of India and Pakistan in the summers. Their blow from west to east. They are usually experienced in the afternoons and the temperature varies between 45°C to 50°C.
‘Foehn’ is the strong, dusty, dry and warm local wind. It develops on the leeward side of the Alps mountain ranges. It occurs due to a regional pressure gradient that forces the air to ascend and cross the barrier. This ascent sometimes causes precipitation on the windward side of the mountains.
After crossing the crest of the mountains, it starts descending on the leeward side a warm and dry wind. The temperature of the winds varies from 15°C to 20°C. This helps in the melting of snow. It makes the pasture land ready for animal grazing.
‘Chinook’ is the name of a hot and dry local wind. It moves down the eastern slopes of the Rockies(the U.S.A. and Canada). The meaning of chinook is ‘snow eater’ as they help in the early melting of the snow.
‘Sirocco’ is a hot, dry dusty wind. It originates in the Sahara desert. It is the wind of spring. After crossing the Mediterranean sea, the Sirocco is slightly cooled by the moisture from the sea. Some of its local names are- Leveche in Spain, Khamsin in Egypt, and Gharbi in the Aegean Sea area.
Harmattan is a strong dry wind that blows over northwest Africa from the northeast. It blows directly from the Sahara desert. Thus, it is hot, dry, and dusty. It provides a welcome relief from the moist heat and is beneficial to people’s health hence also known as ‘the doctor’.
Read More: Atmospheric Pressure
Cold Local Winds
Mistral’ is a cold wind of the Alps. It moves over France towards the Mediterranean Sea through the Rhone valley. They are cold, dry, and of high velocity. They reduce the temperature below the freezing point.
Bora’ is a cold, dry, high-speed north-easterly wind blowing down from the mountains in the Adriatic Sea region.
Blizzard is a violent wind. It is freezing, wind-laden with dry snow.
Read More: Chemical Weathering
Local Winds World Map
The wind is the horizontal movement of air. Below is a map of the Local Winds around the world.
Read More: Biological Weathering
Local Winds Significance
- They deliver rain, which is necessary for the ripening of the nearby fruits to occur.
- When warm air rises over the land, onshore winds are produced.
- Strong winds have the effect of replenishing sizable reservoirs, which are essential for producing electricity and drinking water across the nation.
Read More: Types of Rocks
Local Winds UPSC
The air movement between low-pressure and high-pressure systems within confined spaces is what generates local winds. Each type of wind has its own distinct appearance because there are so many different kinds. It is crucial to comprehend what causes local winds because they frequently have a considerable impact on the local climate.
Because they have an impact on climatological traits like visibility and humidity, local winds play a significant role in weather and climate, both individually and collectively. Above all, they significantly affect the nation’s economy. You will learn about Local Winds in this article, which will help you with your preparation for the UPSC Civil Service exam in Geography Syllabus.