Table of Contents
Geomorphic Processes: Landforms on the surface of the earth are continuously formed and deformed as a result of the ongoing effect of internal and external factors. Geomorphic processes are the internal and external factors that stress earth materials, react chemically with them, and modify how the earth’s surface is shaped. Various agents are responsible for Geomorphic Processes to happen.
A mobile medium that extracts, transports, and deposits earth materials are referred to as geomorphic agents. Running water, glaciers, wind, waves, ocean currents, groundwater, etc. are a few examples of geomorphic agents. Gradients, whether from higher levels to lower levels or from high-pressure zones to low-pressure areas, are the cause of all motions.
Difference Between Geomorphic Processes and Geomorphic Agents
A Geomorphic Processes is a force that is applied to the components of the earth and brings changes in the configuration of the earth. A moving medium that gathers, moves, and deposits earth materials are referred to as a geomorphic agent.
Geomorphic Process Meaning and Types
Due to physical forces and chemical reactions on materials already present on Earth, the geomorphic process involves bringing about changes in the shape of the planet’s surface. Exogenic and endogenic forces are responsible for the physical and chemical action.
There are two main geomorphic processes. Endogenic Forces and Exogenic Forces.
|Exogenic Forces||Endogenic Forces|
|Weathering – Physical, Chemical, Biological
Faulting and Folding
Geomorphic Processes Exogenic Forces
Exogenic forces are those that originate in or draw strength from the earth’s atmosphere or outer atmosphere. Forces include, among others, the wind, waves, and water. Weathering, mass movement, erosion, and deposition are a few examples of exogenic processes. Exogenic forces are primarily forces that wear land.
The effects of exogenic forces can include weathering, erosion, and deposition. The fracturing of rocks on the surface of the earth by various forces, such as rivers, wind, sea waves, and glaciers, is known as weathering. The movement of shattered rocks from one location to another by natural forces like wind, water, and glaciers is known as erosion.
Some examples of exogenic forces:
Weathering denotes the process of wearing, breaking up, and fragmentation of the rock that creates the surface of the ground and that remains exposed to the weather. The process results from forces of weather like rain action, variations in temperature and frost action.
Soil erosion is the loosening and displacement of topsoil from the land due to the action of agents like wind and water.
Transporting eroded debris involves moving material to other locations. The addition of eroded sediments, soil, and rocks to a landform or land mass is known as deposition in geology. When soil particles are compressed together, the amount of pore space between them is decreased, resulting in soil compaction.
On softer slopes, the erosional agents lose energy and speed, and the materials they are carrying begin to settle. Therefore, erosion leads to deposition. The coarser materials settle first, followed by the finer ones. Running water, wind, glaciers, waves, and groundwater are all erosional geomorphic forces. They also act as depositional or aggradational agents. The depressions are filled with deposits.
Geomorphic Processes Endogenic Forces
Endogenic forces are those internal forces that draw strength from the interior of the earth and are essential in forming the earth’s crust. Examples include the forces that form mountains, the forces that build continents, earthquakes, volcanism, etc. Land-building forces make up the majority of the endogenic forces. The primary driving force behind endogenic geomorphic processes is energy coming from within the ground. The primary sources of this energy are radioactivity, friction caused by tidal and rotational motion, and primordial heat from the earth’s formation.
Some examples of Endogenic Forces:
Volcanism is the process of molten rock (magma) erupting onto the surface of the Earth or another planet with a solid surface. Lava and volcanic gases are released via an opening in the surface known as a vent.
Also called tectonism, large-scale deformation of Earth’s crust by natural processes, which leads to the formation of continents and ocean basins, mountain systems, plateaus, rift valleys, and other features by mechanisms such as lithospheric plate movement (that is, plate tectonics), volcanic loading etc.
It is a process by which the recrystallisation and reorganisation of minerals occur within a rock. This occurs due to pressure, volume and temperature.
The natural shaking of the Earth is known as an earthquake. This occurrence is the result of energy being released, which creates waves that go in all directions. The epicentre of an earthquake is a location under the Earth’s surface.
A landslide is a natural occurrence that occurs when soil, rock, or other debris falls as a result of gravity. It is brought on by a number of terrain-specific geofactors (such as slope, lithology, rock structure, geomorphology, etc.), but is typically brought on by torrential rain or seismic shocks.
Faulting and Folding: Faulting happens when the Earth’s crust completely breaks and slides past each other. A fault tends to cause the movement of rocks in opposite directions. Fold mountains are created as a result of folding.
Geomorphic Processes UPSC
A Geomorphic Process is a force that is applied to the components of the earth and brings changes in the configuration of the earth.
Endogenic forces and Exogenic Processes are responsible for Geomorphic Processes.
Various Geomorphic agents like Running water, glaciers, wind, waves, ocean currents, groundwater, etc. are a few examples of geomorphic agents that also play a role in the process.
A UPSC aspirant should be well aware of the topic of how various changes happen inside and on the surface of the earth, that help to shape the configuration of the earth. The details in the article would help candidates preparing for UPSC 2023.
Geomorphic Processes FAQs
Q) What are geomorphic processes?
Ans. The earth’s surface materials and landforms are altered by geomorphological processes, which are natural mechanisms of erosion, weathering, and deposition brought about by physical pressures and chemical reactions on the planet’s materials.
Q) What is the difference between geological and geomorphological processes?
Ans. Geomorphology examines the external features of mountains, the cross sections of rocks, and other elements and shapes connected to the planet Earth’s crust. Geology, on the other hand, focuses on the investigation of the substances that give rise to rocks, mountains, different types of soil, and the like.
Q) What are the Geomorphic Agents?
Ans. A mobile medium that extracts, transports, and deposits earth materials are referred to as a geomorphic agent. Running water, glaciers, wind, waves, ocean currents, groundwater, etc. are a few examples of geomorphic agents. Gradients, whether from higher levels to lower levels or from high-pressure zones to low-pressure areas, are the cause of all motions.
Q) What is Weathering?
Ans. Weathering denotes the process of wearing, breaking up, and fragmentation of the rock that creates the surface of the ground and that remains exposed to the weather. The process results from forces of weather like rain action, variations in temperature and frost action.
Q) What is volcanism?
Ans. Volcanism is the process of molten rock (magma) erupting onto the surface of the Earth or another planet with a solid surface. Lava and volcanic gases are released via an opening in the surface known as a vent.
Q) What is intrusive volcanism?
Ans. When magma is pressed into the rocks that make up the Earth’s crust, it causes intrusive volcanism. While remaining underground, it cools and solidifies, creating various features known as plutons. It is an intrusive igneous rock that has formed.
Other Indian Geography Topics
Other Fundamental Geography Topics