The Tropical Region is located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The northern limit of the region is formed by the Tropic of Cancer at 23.5°N latitude, and the southern limit is formed by the Tropic of Capricorn at 23.5°S latitude.
The Equatorial Region is frequently grouped with the Tropical Region. The Equatorial Region is defined by latitudes ranging from 3°N to 3°S. Equatorial Climate, on the other hand, is defined as the climatic type extending from 10-12°N to 10-12°S of the equator. As a result, Equatorial Climate is a type of Tropical Climate. This article will focus on Tropical Climates or Tropical Monsoon Climates that would be useful for UPSC IAS preparation.
Read More: Humidity
Tropical Monsoon Climate
A Tropical Monsoon Climate type of climate is experienced along the east coast of the tropics, with continuous rainfall from trade winds at all times. Rainfall is orographic, as in eastern Brazil, and convective due to intense heat during the day and summer. It tends towards summer as much as monsoon land but without the usual dry seasons.
Read More: Tornado
Tropical Climate Distribution Map
It is found between latitudes 5 ° and 30 on either side of the equator. Tropical monsoon lands are covered by wet monsoons along the coast in summer and offshore dry conditions in winter. They grow best in: the Indian subcontinent, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, parts of Vietnam, southern China, and northern Australia.
Coastal trade winds change the climate outside the region throughout the year. It receives more evenly distributed rainfall. Central America experiences a tropical sea climate. West Indies, Northeast Australia, Philippines, parts of East Africa, Madagascar, Guinea coast, and eastern Brazil.
Read More: Anticyclones
Tropical Climate Pressure and Wind
The equator experiences Intertropical Convergence, whereas the Subtropical Regions experience Subtropical Anticyclones. This is the meeting point of the Northeast trade winds and the Southeast trade winds.
Read More: Thunderstorms
Tropical Climate Temperature
Despite the fact that the average annual temperature is fairly high, the summer and winter seasons are clearly distinguished due to the sun’s northward and southward movement. In the Köppen system, a tropical climate is defined as having an average temperature of more than 18°C each month. There is no winter season, and annual rainfall far outnumbers annual evaporation.
Read More: Evaporation and Condensation
Tropical Climate Precipitation
The majority of their annual rainfall is caused by cyclonic and orographic rain. The average annual rainfall is around 150 cm, but the temporal and spatial distribution varies greatly. The majority of the annual monsoonal rainfall is delivered by moisture-laden South-West monsoon winds.
Tropical Climate Natural Vegetation
The natural vegetation of tropical monsoon lands is dependent on summer rainfall. Trees usually have deciduous leaves due to the dry period. Where there is high rainfall, e.g., The resulting vegetation is a jungle in southern Burma, peninsular India, northern Australia, and coastal areas with tropical marine climates.
The forest is much more open and less luxurious than the Equatorial Forest and has fewer species. Most forests give valuable timber and are valuable for their durable hardwoods. Of these, teak is the most famous. Trees are typically deciduous in nature. The majority of the forests produce valuable timber, such as teak. Other types of wood include sal, acacia, and eucalyptus.
Read More: List of Major Local Winds
Tropical Regions Climatic Conditions
Tropical regions experience two types of the climatic condition:
1. Tropical Monsoon Climate
The difference in the rate of warming and cooling of the land and sea is the root cause of the monsoon climate. In summer, when the sun is in the tropic of Cancer, large areas of the Northern Hemisphere are hot. Very slowly warming oceans are relatively cold. At the same time, winter is experienced in the Southern Hemisphere and forms a high-pressure area in the continental interior of Australia.
Winds are drawn towards the continental lowland region that reaches Java as southeast monsoons and then reaches the Indian subcontinent as southwest monsoons after crossing the equator. In winter, the situation is reversed. As the Sun is above the tropic of Capricorn, Continental Asia is much colder, resulting in land cooling faster. The high-pressure area formed by outgoing winds thus results in Northeast monsoons.
2. Tropical Marine Climate
This type of climate is experienced along the east coast of the tropics, with continuous rainfall from trade winds at all times. Rainfall is orographic, as in eastern Brazil, and convective due to intense heat during the day and summer. It tends towards summer as much as monsoon land but without the usual dry seasons.
Read More: Types of Winds
Tropical Climate Life and Economy
People are primarily engaged in agriculture. Rice, wheat, pulses, cotton, jute, sugarcane, oilseeds, coffee, tea, and various fruits and vegetables are grown here. This region raises all types of domestic animals. Agriculture and other agro-based activities are well-developed in this region.
The region is also very rich in mineral deposits of various types, which are necessary ingredients for modern industrial activities. The main economic activity of the people is agriculture. The major agricultural crops are paddy, sugarcane, hemp, etc.
Read More: Seasons of India
Tropical Monsoon Variations
1. Less Pronounced Dry Periods
During the wet season, regions with this Tropical Monsoon Climate experience heavy rainfall and frequent thunderstorms. During the dry season, rainfall is also higher than the average rainfall in tropical climates. The distinction between wet and dry seasons is less obvious.
2. Pronounced Dry Seasons
The dry season in this variation of the Tropical Monsoon Climate, while similar in length, has significantly less rainfall. In terms of duration and character, the dry season is similar to the Tropical Savanna Climate. The dry season is followed by a period of heavy precipitation of more than 1000 mm.
Temperature: Throughout the year, tropical climates have temperatures around 18 °C. There is little temperature variation between seasons. The Torrid Zone was named by the Ancient Greeks to describe the hot, dry weather that this region experiences.
Read More: Monsoon in India
Tropical Climate UPSC
Tropical Climatic Regions include both Equatorial and Tropical Monsoon Climatic Regions. The Köppen-Geiger system is the foundation for categorising the world’s climate into Climatic Regions. These regions are distinguished by consistent temperatures, no seasonal temperature differences, and persistently high rainfall. Tropical Climatic Regions include Tropical Monsoon Regions.