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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 28 November 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 26 November 2022

  • ‘We need democracy, rule of law, and freedom of expression,’ chant students at Tsinghua University in Beijing, Chinese president Xi Jinping’s alma mater; call for an end to lockdowns and mass testing gathers steam on social media
  • The protests have coincided with a record outbreak of COVID cases across China in recent days, which have brought fresh lockdowns. The National Health Commission on Sunday reported more than 39,500 cases, the highest since the pandemic began.

The Hindu Editorial Today

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday said that assuming the G-20 presidency was a huge opportunity for India and that the country must utilise it by focusing on the global good. He said this during his monthly radio broadcast, Mann Ki Baat.
  • India got the presidency of the G20: This is the first time the country will be holding (in New Delhi from September 9 and 10, 2023) an international summit of this scale.
    • The Indian Prime Minister stated that India’s presidency will be inclusive, ambitious, decisive and action-oriented, as represented by India’s G20 chairmanship theme “One Earth, One Family, One Future.”

Significance of G20 presidency for India:

  • An opportunity to assume leadership of the Global South.
  • Building a global consensus on reforming multilateral organisations such as the UN was the first step toward a new world order for the post-Covid era.
  • The growing relevance of the G20 in a world facing challenges like climate change, the Covid-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine.

Members:

  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the EU.

Significance of G20 presidency for India:

  • An opportunity to assume leadership of the Global South.
  • Building a global consensus on reforming multilateral organisations such as the UN was the first step toward a new world order for the post-Covid era.
  • The growing relevance of the G20 in a world facing challenges like climate change, the Covid-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine.

Members:

  • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the EU.

  • The common criticism that the functioning of the Collegium system of judicial appointments is opaque, and sometimes arbitrary, seems to hold greater validity in the matter of transfers of judges from one High Court to another.
  • A recent round of transfers — among the dozens that have been effected in the last few years — has brought the controversial issue to the fore again.
  • If reports that the Gujarat High Court Chief Justice was unaware of the impending transfer of Justice Kariel are correct, it bodes ill for the legitimacy of transfer proposals.
  • However, the power of transfer has always been seen as a possible threat to judicial independence. Even under the Collegium system, it seems it is difficult to dispel the impression that the threat of transfer hangs over every judge’s head.

The Memorandum of Procedure is clear that a judge’s consent is not necessary to effect a transfer.

Transfer of judges and the Constitution

  • Article 222 of the Constitution provides for the transfer of High Court judges, including the Chief Justice.
  • It says the President, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, may transfer a judge from one High Court to any other High Court.
  • It also provides for a compensatory allowance to the transferred judge.
  • This means that the executive could transfer a judge, but only after consulting the Chief Justice of India.

  • Two weeks ago, when the world population touched eight billion, several headlines focused on how India was the largest contributor to the last billion and is set to surpass China as the world’s most populous nation by 2023.
  • China’s population has begun to decline, while India’s population is expected to grow for another 40 years, they said. But missing in this conversation is the real threat of depopulation that parts of India too face, and the country’s complete lack of preparedness to deal with it.
  • By current United Nations estimates, India’s population will begin to decline only in 2063, by which time it will be just shy of 1.7 billion. The world’s population is expected to grow until 2086.
  • It is now well-established that fertility in India is falling along expected lines as a direct result of rising incomes and greater female access to health and education. India’s total fertility rate is now below the replacement rate of fertility.
  • Total Fertility Rate of about 2.1 children per woman is called Replacement-level fertility.
    • TFR lower than 2.1 children per woman — indicates that a generation is not producing enough children to replace itself, eventually leading to an outright reduction in population.
    • Total fertility rate (TFR) in simple terms refers to the total number of children born or likely to be born to a woman in her lifetime if she were subject to the prevailing rate of age-specific fertility in the population.
  • India’s total fertility rate (TFR) has declined from 2.2 in 2015-16 to 2.0 in 2019-21, indicating the significant progress of population control measures, revealed the report of the fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5).

What is bluebugging?

  • It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection. Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts. It started out as a threat for laptops with Bluetooth capability. Later hackers used the technique to target mobile phones and other devices.

How can one prevent bluebugging ?

  • Turning off Bluetooth and disconnecting paired Bluetooth devices when not in use, updating the device’s system software to the latest version, limited use of public Wi-Fi and using VPN as an additional security measure are some of the ways to prevent bluebugging

Q) With reference to Indian Constitution, consider the following statements:

  1. Initially, it had been written in both English and Hindi.
  2. It is the largest written constitution in the world.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

भारतीय संविधान के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. प्रारंभ में, यह अंग्रेजी और हिंदी दोनों में लिखा गया था ।
  2. यह विश्व का सबसे बड़ा लिखित संविधान है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

History of the Constitution Day

  • The Constituent Assembly adopted the present-day Constitution on November 26, 1949 but it was decided that it will come into effect after a gap of almost two months i.e. on January 26, 1950. During this two-month break, the members of the constituent assembly thoroughly read it in order to find any mistakes.
  • The Constituent Assembly met for two years, eleven months and eighteen days, a total of 166 days, before adopting the Constitution.
  • Initially, it had been written in both English and Hindi and had been signed by each member of the assembly.

Interesting facts about the Constitution of India

  • The constitution is the largest written constitution in the world.
  • The original copy had been written by hand.
  • Each page of the constitution has a gold leaf frame while the opening page of each is adorned with some kind of artwork.
  • Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose, who were artists from Shantiniketan, had decorated the original version of the Constitution.
  • Prem Behari Narain Raizada was a talented calligrapher who had prepared the original copies of the constitution.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. National Milk Day is celebrated in India to honour the memory of Dr. Verghese Kurien.
  2. India is the world’s largest milk producer.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. डॉ वर्गीज कुरियन की स्मृति को सम्मानित करने के लिए भारत में राष्ट्रीय दुग्ध दिवस मनाया जाता है।
  2. भारत विश्व का सबसे बड़ा दुग्ध उत्पादक देश है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

About:

  • National Milk Day is celebrated in India on November 26 to honour the memory of Dr Verghese Kurien, who is fondly known as the father of the White Revolution.
  • Kurien was also called the Milkman of India as his ideas and efforts to build a system of farmer cooperatives helped transform the country from an importer of dairy products to the world’s largest milk producer.

Significance

  • National Milk Day raises awareness about the need for milk in human lives.
  • India is the world’s largest milk producer, with 22 percent of global production, followed by the United States of America, China, Pakistan and Brazil.
    • According to the data available on the NDDB website, milk production in India has increased from 84.4 million tonnes in 2001-02 to 121.8 million tonnes in 2010-11 and 198.4 million tonnes in 2019-20.
  • Since the 1970s, most of the expansion in milk production has been in South Asia, which is the main driver of milk production growth in the developing world.

Q) Which of the following National Parks is unique in being a swamp with floating vegetation that supports a rich biodiversity?

  1. Bhitarkanika National Park
  2. Keibul Lamjao National Park
  3. Keoladeo Ghana National park
  4. Sultanpur National park

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा राष्ट्रीय उद्यान एक समृद्ध जैव विविधता का समर्थन करने वाली तैरती वनस्पतियों के साथ एक दलदल होने में अद्वितीय है?

  1. भितरकनिका राष्ट्रीय उद्यान
  2. केबुल लामजाओ राष्ट्रीय उद्यान
  3. केवलादेव घाना राष्ट्रीय उद्यान
  4. सुल्तानपुर राष्ट्रीय उद्यान

Explanation:

  • It is the only floating park in the world, located in Manipur, North East India, and an integral part of Loktak Lake.
  • The national park is characterized by many floating decomposed plant materials locally called phumdis.
  • The park is a swamp established by Mann Sharma with floating mass of vegetation (created by accrual of organic garbage and biomass with soil particles that has been thickened into a solid form called phumdis, at the south–eastern side of the Loktak Lake, which has been declared a Ramsar site. Two third’s to three fourth’s of the total park area is formed by phumdis.

Q) Which of the following statements best describes ‘fiscal consolidation’?

  1. Strategy of the government to disinvest public sector enterprises to meet deficit.
  2. Government agenda to reform loan disbursal mechanism of scheduled banks.
  3. Policies undertaken by Governments to reduce their deficits and accumulation of debt stock.
  4. Scheduled banks action plan to recover the loans from non-performing assets.

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा कथन ‘राजकोषीय समेकन’ का सबसे अच्छा वर्णन करता है?

  1. घाटे को पूरा करने के लिए सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र के उद्यमों के विनिवेश के लिए सरकार की रणनीति।
  2. अनुसूचित बैंकों के ऋण संवितरण तंत्र में सुधार के लिए सरकार का एजेंडा।
  3. सरकारों द्वारा अपने घाटे और ऋण स्टॉक के संचय को कम करने के लिए शुरू की गई नीतियां।
  4. गैर-निष्पादित आस्तियों से ऋण की वसूली के लिए अनुसूचित बैंकों की कार्य योजना।
  • Fiscal Consolidation refers to the policies undertaken by Governments (national and sub-national levels) to reduce their deficits and accumulation of debt stock.
  • FISCAL CONSOLIDATION is a process where government’s FISCAL health is getting improved and is indicated by reduced FISCAL deficit. Improved tax revenue realization and better aligned expenditure are the components of FISCAL CONSOLIDATION as the FISCAL deficit reaches at a manageable level.

Q) Consider the following statements

  1. The office of governor of a state is considered as an employment under the Central government.
  2. The governor is indirectly elected by a specially constituted electoral college same like president.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें

  1. किसी राज्य के राज्यपाल के कार्यालय को केंद्र सरकार के अधीन रोजगार माना जाता है।
  2. राज्यपाल अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से राष्ट्रपति की तरह एक विशेष रूप से गठित निर्वाचक मंडल द्वारा चुना जाता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. तो 1 और ही 2
  • The governor is neither directly elected by the people nor indirectly elected by a specially constituted electoral college as is the case with the president. He is appointed by the president by warrant under his hand and seal.
  • As held by the Supreme Court in 1979, the office of governor of a state is not an employment under the Central government. It is an independent constitutional office and is not under the control of or subordinate to the Central government.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.” – Mahatma Gandhi. (2018) (150 words)

“क्रोध और असहिष्णुता सही समझ के दुश्मन हैं।” – महात्मा गांधी। (2018) (150 शब्द)

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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