The Baltic Sea is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean that divides the Scandinavian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe. It extends northward from the latitude of southern Denmark almost to the Arctic Circle. The Baltic Sea, the largest body of brackish water in the world, is of enormous importance to scientists and, to history, it symbolises the economic hub of the Hanseatic League, the important mediaeval trading alliance of northern European ports. The sea’s multiple names reflect its strategic position as a crossroads for many nations.
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Baltic Sea in World Map
The Baltic Sea is known for its proximity to many countries, brackish water, and seasonality. Here is the map of the Baltic Sea.
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Baltic Sea Countries & Geographic Location
The Baltic sea extends into the Atlantic Ocean. The Baltic sea is surrounded by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and the North and Central European Plain. The latitude of the sea is 53°N to 66°N, and its longitude is 10°E to 30°E.
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Baltic Sea Physical Features
The melting Scandinavian ice sheet withdrew toward the Arctic during the end of the Pleistocene Epoch glaciations, leaving behind a water-covered region that included the Baltic Sea. All of northern Europe was covered in ice about 14,000 years ago, extending as far south as the modern German-Polish border. By 7700 BC, glacial meltwater had created the Yoldia Sea, which extended east from the present-day Skagerrak across what is now southern Sweden and its many lakes to the present-day Lake Ladoga, beyond the bend of the Gulf of Finland.
Ancylus Lake, a freshwater body of water that stretches from Arctic Sweden and Finland to the modern-day southern Baltic, was still extant a thousand years later when just a few patches of sluggish ice remained in northern Sweden. The deepest parts of the Baltic Sea can be found off the southeast coast of Sweden between Nyköping and the island of Gotland, where Landsort Deep reaches a depth of 1,506 feet (459 metres), between Gotland and Latvia, where Gotland Deep reaches a depth of 817 feet (249 metres), and in the Gulf of Bothnia, which is located in the Land Sea between Sweden and the Land Islands. Along the majority of the Gulf of Finland, a deepwater channel is also present. The Baltic Sea itself is separated into a number of basins by shallow shelves, such as the Gulf of Gdansk.
The Baltic nations are bordered by the Baltic Sea, which gives the region its name, on the west and north, by Russia on the east, Belarus on the southeast, and by Poland and a Russian exclave on the southwest.
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Baltic Sea Climate
The main characteristic of the Baltic climate is its distinct seasonality. Summers are brief and rather pleasant, but winters are long and chilly. Midwinter means temperatures over the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland range from around 14 °F ( 10 °C) to about 63 °F (17 °C) for southern sections of the Baltic. Another aspect of the climate is variation. There are periods when the Baltic receives light marine weather from the North Atlantic.
Other times, continental impacts are more pronounced, resulting in periods of extremely cold winter weather and warm, dry summers. Depending on the weather, precipitation ranges from 20 to 24 inches (or 500 to 600 mm) annually. Cloudy skies are the norm, and spring and early summer are when fog is most prevalent. Variable winds that rarely reach gale force are more common. In the summer, sea breezes frequently blow over coastal areas.
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Baltic Sea Significance
The Baltic Sea, which connected various regions of Europe, served as the economic hub of the Hanseatic League, a federation of trading cities that existed from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Poland, Sweden, and Denmark competed with one another for control of the Baltic Sea in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
The Baltic Sea holds a special place in the hearts of many. It is situated in northern Europe in a key region that is bordered by nine nations. Poland, Germany, Sweden, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Estonia, and Germany are a few of these.
The Baltic Sea’s birthplace in the North Atlantic Ocean also contributes to its geographic significance. It extends to the north and serves as a dividing line between the Scandinavian Peninsula and the rest of continental Europe.
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Baltic Sea UPSC
The Baltic nations are bordered by the Baltic Sea, which gives the region its name, on the west and north, by Russia on the east, Belarus on the southeast, and by Poland and a Russian exclave on the southwest. With a resounding majority, their then-popularly elected governments proclaimed their independence from the USSR in 1991. Natural resources are not abundant in the Baltic region.
Despite producing a significant amount of oil shale, Estonia imports the majority of its mineral and energy resources. Potatoes, cereal grains, and fodder crops are grown along with dairy animals and pigs, and agriculture continues to play a significant role in the Baltic economy. India and the Baltic states share linguistic origins and a shared history. The Baltic nations’ cutting-edge innovation ecosystems and large markets for these technologies complement those of India.
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