Nehru Report 1928
The Nehru Report 1928 was published by a commission headed by Pt. Motilal. After asking Indian politicians to prepare a constitution for the nation, Lord Birkenhead, India’s Secretary of State established this committee. Read all detail about Nehru Report for UPSC in this article.
The report, which demanded that India be given Dominion Status, was discussed by the Congress. In order to provide India dominion status inside the British Commonwealth, the Nehru Report’s main objective was to achieve. This article will examine the Nehru Report (1928), which is useful for preparing for the UPSC Exam.
Nehru Report History
While Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose argued for absolute swaraj during its annual session in Calcutta in 1928, the majority of politicians were content with the dominion status for the time being. At its annual meeting in Madras in December 1927, Congress endorsed a resolution urging a boycott of the Simon Commission “at every step and in every shape.” Additional political groups followed suit.
A total hartal was observed in Mumbai on February 3, 1928, the day the Simon Commission landed in Bombay. Each place the commission went, a procession of people emerged. However, the commission had to fulfill its obligations. Two visits were made in 1928 and 1929, and a report was then submitted in May 1930.
However, the Indian leaders were not going to agree to it. The Indian secretary of state, Lord Birkenhead, tasked these legislators with creating a draught of the country’s constitution. In response to the political leaders’ acceptance of the challenge, an All Party Conference was called for in February and May 1928.
A committee headed by Motilal Nehru was established as a result of the All Parties Conference to prepare the suggested constitution. Jawaharlal Nehru served as the committee’s secretary, and it also had Ali Imam, Tej Bahadur Sapru, M.S. Aney, Mangal Singh, Shuaib Qureshi, Subhas Chandra Bose, and G. R. Pradhan as members. A proposed constitution was created in the “Nehru Committee Report.” On August 28, 1928, this report was delivered to the Lucknow meeting of all parties. Jinnah, though, voted against the report.
Nehru Report Recommendations
A parliamentary system of governance with a bi-cameral legislature made up of a Senate and a House of Representatives should be granted to India. The House of Representatives will elect 500 members for five years, while the Senate will elect 200 members for seven years.
Using the Executive Council’s recommendations as a guide, the Governor-General will make choices. It will answer to the legislature as a whole. India should adopt a federal system of government, with the Center keeping its remaining powers. Because it stirs up communal passions, a separate electorate for minorities won’t exist; instead, it should be disbanded and a single electorate set up.
There won’t be any seats set aside for the Bengali and Punjabi groups. However, in provinces with a minimum 10% Muslim population, seats may be set aside for Muslims. The judiciary and executive must be kept apart. Muslims should make about 25% of the population at the Center. If Sind can prove its financial independence, it should be cut off from Bombay.
Nehru Report Muslim League’s Reaction
The Muslim minority received separate electorates and importance under the 1916 Congress-Muslim League agreement, but the Nehru Report rejected these provisions. Muslims understood that despite being the majority in India’s North-East and North-West regions, where they would control the regional legislature, they would always be a minority at the centre.
As a result, they demanded that residuary powers be given to the provinces, which went against the Nehru Report’s recommendations. At least 13 members of the Central Legislature should be Muslims. Offering separate electorates and maintaining communal group engagement are both necessary. If a geographical distribution occurs, it shouldn’t have a detrimental impact on Muslims living in Punjab and Bengal provinces.
No legislative action is required to be taken if three-fourths of the members oppose the bill. To separate Sindh from Bombay is vital. Balochistan is going to be reformatted. All services should be provided equally to Muslims. The Constitution should give special consideration to the protection of Muslim law, culture, education, and charitable organizations. The national and provincial ministries each have a third of the total Muslim population as representation. If the Constitution needs to be changed, the provinces must agree to the changes.
Nehru Committee Report and Jinnah’s Fourteen Points
- A federal constitution that leaves provinces with some authority.
- Provincial independence.
- States must all agree before a constitutional amendment may be made.
- Adequate Muslim representation in all legislatures and political bodies, without reducing Muslim majorities in any province to equality or minorities.
- Enough Muslims are represented in the military and other self-governing organizations.
- Muslims make up 1/3 of the Central Legislature’s membership.
- The state and federal cabinets have a third of Muslim members.
- Demanded Separate electorates.
- If a minority community feels that a bill will be against their interests by 3/4 of the vote, it cannot be passed in any legislature.
- Any territorial restructuring that does not impact Bengal, Punjab, or the NWFP’s Muslim majority.
- Sindh’s separation from the Bombay Presidency.
- Constitutional changes in Baluchistan and the NWFP.
- Complete religious freedom for all groups.
- Defense of Muslims’ rights to their religion, culture, education, and language.
Nehru Report Outcome
Muslim political circles in Bengal were furious about the Nehru report because they perceived it as a challenge to Hindu hegemony. Separate electorates had become essential to Muslim politics in Bengal, and when it was suddenly rejected; Hindus saw it as a betrayal of the Muslim cause.
They argued that separate electorates should be preserved to protect them from Hindus taking advantage of them economically and educationally, and that due to their provincial majority, they should be given a majority in the legislature.
Hindus rejected these demands as being illogical and asserted that, despite being a minority in terms of population, they fully deserved their current majority in the house based on past contributions and present capability.
Nehru Report UPSC
The Fundamental Rights of India must not be abandoned, according to the Nehru Report. The stories had drowned out the American Bill of Rights’ influence, which served as the cornerstone for the Indian Constitution’s Fundamental Rights clause.
Unfortunately, the All-Party Convention in Calcutta in December 1928 did not approve the Nehru Report. Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, and Sikh League leaders among others raised objections. The Nehru Report is fully described in this post, which will be highly beneficial for candidates studying for the UPSC/IAS Examination.
Nehru Report FAQs
Q. What were the main points of Nehru Report?
Ans. The major point of the Nehru Report is:
- The Bill of Rights
- Granting men and women the same rights as citizens.
- Establishment of a federal system of government with residual authority given to the centre.
- A proposal to establish the Supreme Court.
Q. What is Nehru Report in easy words?
Ans. A new dominion status for India was suggested in the Nehru Report on August 15, 1928. Additionally, a federal government was to be established for the Indian constitution, and joint elections with seats reserved for minorities were to be created.
Q. Who opposed Nehru Report?
Ans. It was opposed by the Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose.
Q. Why did Jinnah rejected the Nehru Report?
Ans. The report was presented during a meeting of the All India Muslim League council on March 9, 1929. Leaders of the Muslim community Muhammad Shafi and Aga Khan both rejected the Nehru Report. They viewed it as a death warrant because it suggested Hindus and Muslims be included on the same electoral rolls.
Q. What are the three land reforms of Nehru?
Ans. The three crucial elements that Nehru adopted were land reforms, agricultural cooperatives, and local self-government. Land reforms resulted in the abolition of the Zamindari system. Farmers were given seeds, manure, and fertilisers through agricultural cooperatives.