UPSC Prelims News of 8 December 2022
Context: India has pledged to become the voice of ‘Global South’ when it assumed the Presidency of G20.
- Previously, countries have been categorised into broad categories for easier analysis. The concept of ‘East’ and ‘West’ is one example of this.
- Another similar categorization is of First World, Second World and Third World countries, based on their affiliation to US or USSR.
About Global South:
- Global North/South is the most accurate grouping of countries together, measuring similarly in terms of wealth, indicators of education and healthcare, etc.
- Another common factor between the South countries is that most have a history of colonisation, largely at the hands of European powers.
- ‘Global North’ loosely refers to countries like the US, Canada, Europe, Russia, Australia and New Zealand, while ‘Global South’ includes countries in Asia, Africa and South America.
- Despite having the higher population, Global South is under-represented in global forum.
- Recent context: The term is used to highlight the region’s historical exclusion from prominent international organisations – such as from the permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council.
- The exclusion from global politics is seen by these countries as contributing to their slower growth.
Criticism of the Term:
- Many of the critics have argued that the term ‘global south’ is too broad.
- Some countries of the Global North have objected to China and India’s inclusion in Global South, given their increasing industrialization.
Yuan Wang 5
Context: Yuan Wang 5, the Chinese Surveillance Vessel has re-entered the Indian Ocean.
More on the News:
- The entry of the vessel in Indian Ocean coincides with a planned Indian long-range missile test, between December 15-16.
- In August, the Yuan Wang 5 had docked at Hambantota in Sri Lanka, which had created a major diplomatic showdown between India and Sri Lanka.
About Yuan Wang 5:
- The ‘Yuan Wang 5’ ship was built at China’s Jiangnan Shipyard has state-of-the-art tracking technology onboard for transoceanic aerospace observation.
- ‘Yuan Wang’class ships are used to track satellite, rocket and intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launches.
- China owns around seven of these tracking ships that can operate throughout the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans.
China’s Presence in Indian Ocean:
- The Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean started in 2008 under the garb of anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden.
- Since then, they have maintained continuous presence in the region, even deploying nuclear attack submarines (SSN), on occasions.
- China has developed a military base in Djibouti and constructed several dual-use ports in the IOR in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, among other countries.
Forbes Asia’s Heroes of Philanthropy List
Context: Recently, 16th edition of Forbes Asia’s Heroes of Philanthropy list was released.
- Unranked list highlights individual altruists in the Asia-Pacific region who are donating from their own fortunes, and giving personal time and attention to their select causes.
- It does not include corporate philanthropy except for privately held companies where the individual is a majority owner.
- Indian Individuals on List: Billionaires Gautam Adani, HCL Technologies’ Shiv Nadar, and Happiest Minds Technologies’ Ashok Soota are the three Indians in the list.
- About Gautam Adani
- Adani Group chairman Gautam Adani was listed for having pledged Rs 60,000 crores ($7.7 billion) when he turned 60 in June this year with the pledge making him one of India’s most generous philanthropists.
- The money will address healthcare, education, and skill development and will be channeled through the family’s Adani Foundation, which was founded in 1996.
- Shiv Nadar
- He counts among the top donors in India, having channeled close to $1 billion of his wealth over a few decades to various social causes through the eponymous Shiv Nadar Foundation.
- This year he donated Rs 11,600 crore ($142 million) to the foundation he established in 1994, intending to create an equitable, merit-based society by empowering individuals through education.
- Ashok Soota
- He has pledged Rs 600 crore (USD 75 million) to the medical research trust he founded in April 2021 for the study of ageing and neurological illnesses.
- He started SKAN— Scientific Knowledge for Ageing and Neurological ailments—with a Rs 200 crore outlay, which he has since tripled.
Context: Etimoga mudflat in Andhra Pradesh is becoming an ideal ‘winter stopover’ for 34 migrant bird species in Central Asian flyway.
What are Mudflats?
- Mudflats or ‘tidal flats’ refer to land near a water body that is regularly flooded by tides and is usually barren (without any vegetation).
- Mudflats and mangroves together constitute an important ecosystem.
- Mudflats serve to protect coastal lands from the eroding forces of nature and also provide an important habitat for shore birds.
About Etimoga Mudflat:
- It is one of the last surviving mudflats on the eastern coastline of India.
- It is spread over an estimated 500 hectares adjacent to the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary in Kakinada bay of Andhra Pradesh.
- It is a continuation of the Kumbabhishekam mudflat, which has been razed to make way for port-based projects in recent years.
- Etimoga mudflat has emerged as India’s prime destination for the ‘Great Knot’ (IUCN: Endangered).
About Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary:
- Location: Nestling on the deltaic branches of Gouthami and Godavari Rivers at Kakinada Bay of Andhra Pradesh.
- Flora: It has the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India, after Sundarbans of West Bengal.
- Fauna: It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long-billed vulture.
- Hope Island, a small tadpole shaped Island, is a part of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.
- The sandy beaches of Hope Island, along with the adjacent Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary are a nesting ground of the Vulnerable Olive Ridley turtle.