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UPSC Prelims News 8 December 2022


UPSC Prelims News of 8 December 2022

Global South

Context: India has pledged to become the voice of ‘Global South’ when it assumed the Presidency of G20.


  • Previously, countries have been categorised into broad categories for easier analysis. The concept of ‘East’ and ‘West’ is one example of this.
  • Another similar categorization is of First World, Second World and Third World countries, based on their affiliation to US or USSR.
Global South
Global South

About Global South:

  • Global North/South is the most accurate grouping of countries together, measuring similarly in terms of wealth, indicators of education and healthcare, etc.
    • Another common factor between the South countries is that most have a history of colonisation, largely at the hands of European powers.
  • ‘Global North’ loosely refers to countries like the US, Canada, Europe, Russia, Australia and New Zealand, while ‘Global South’ includes countries in Asia, Africa and South America.
    • Despite having the higher population, Global South is under-represented in global forum.
  • Recent context: The term is used to highlight the region’s historical exclusion from prominent international organisations – such as from the permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council.
    • The exclusion from global politics is seen by these countries as contributing to their slower growth.

Criticism of the Term:

  • Many of the critics have argued that the term ‘global south’ is too broad.
  • Some countries of the Global North have objected to China and India’s inclusion in Global South, given their increasing industrialization.

UPSC Prelims News 7 December 2022


Yuan Wang 5

Context: Yuan Wang 5, the Chinese Surveillance Vessel has re-entered the Indian Ocean.

More on the News:

  • The entry of the vessel in Indian Ocean coincides with a planned Indian long-range missile test, between December 15-16.
  • In August, the Yuan Wang 5 had docked at Hambantota in Sri Lanka, which had created a major diplomatic showdown between India and Sri Lanka.

About Yuan Wang 5:

  • The ‘Yuan Wang 5’ ship was built at China’s Jiangnan Shipyard has state-of-the-art tracking technology onboard for transoceanic aerospace observation.
  • ‘Yuan Wang’class ships are used to track satellite, rocket and intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) launches.
  • China owns around seven of these tracking ships that can operate throughout the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans.
China’s Presence in Indian Ocean
China’s Presence in Indian Ocean

China’s Presence in Indian Ocean:

  • The Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean started in 2008 under the garb of anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden.
  • Since then, they have maintained continuous presence in the region, even deploying nuclear attack submarines (SSN), on occasions.
  • China has developed a military base in Djibouti and constructed several dual-use ports in the IOR in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, among other countries.


Forbes Asia’s Heroes of Philanthropy List

Context: Recently, 16th edition of Forbes Asia’s Heroes of Philanthropy list was released.

About List:

  • Unranked list highlights individual altruists in the Asia-Pacific region who are donating from their own fortunes, and giving personal time and attention to their select causes.
  • It does not include corporate philanthropy except for privately held companies where the individual is a majority owner.
  • Indian Individuals on List: Billionaires Gautam Adani, HCL Technologies’ Shiv Nadar, and Happiest Minds Technologies’ Ashok Soota are the three Indians in the list.
  1. About Gautam Adani
  • Adani Group chairman Gautam Adani was listed for having pledged Rs 60,000 crores ($7.7 billion) when he turned 60 in June this year with the pledge making him one of India’s most generous philanthropists.
  • The money will address healthcare, education, and skill development and will be channeled through the family’s Adani Foundation, which was founded in 1996.
  1. Shiv Nadar
  • He counts among the top donors in India, having channeled close to $1 billion of his wealth over a few decades to various social causes through the eponymous Shiv Nadar Foundation.
  • This year he donated Rs 11,600 crore ($142 million) to the foundation he established in 1994, intending to create an equitable, merit-based society by empowering individuals through education.
  1. Ashok Soota
  • He has pledged Rs 600 crore (USD 75 million) to the medical research trust he founded in April 2021 for the study of ageing and neurological illnesses.
  • He started SKAN— Scientific Knowledge for Ageing and Neurological ailments—with a Rs 200 crore outlay, which he has since tripled.


Etimoga Mudflats

Context: Etimoga mudflat in Andhra Pradesh is becoming an ideal ‘winter stopover’ for 34 migrant bird species in Central Asian flyway.

What are Mudflats?

  • Mudflats or ‘tidal flats’ refer to land near a water body that is regularly flooded by tides and is usually barren (without any vegetation).
  • Mudflats and mangroves together constitute an important ecosystem.
  • Mudflats serve to protect coastal lands from the eroding forces of nature and also provide an important habitat for shore birds.

About Etimoga Mudflat:

  • It is one of the last surviving mudflats on the eastern coastline of India.
  • It is spread over an estimated 500 hectares adjacent to the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary in Kakinada bay of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is a continuation of the Kumbabhishekam mudflat, which has been razed to make way for port-based projects in recent years.
  • Etimoga mudflat has emerged as India’s prime destination for the ‘Great Knot’ (IUCN: Endangered).

About Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Location: Nestling on the deltaic branches of Gouthami and Godavari Rivers at Kakinada Bay of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Flora: It has the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India, after Sundarbans of West Bengal.
  • Fauna: It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long-billed vulture.
  • Hope Island, a small tadpole shaped Island, is a part of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The sandy beaches of Hope Island, along with the adjacent Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary are a nesting ground of the Vulnerable Olive Ridley turtle.

UPSC Mains Result 2022


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