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Indian Sex Ratio 2024, NFHS-5 Survey Estimated Sex Ratio

The sex ratio, which presents the number of females per 1,000 males, aids in various demographic analyses, which include mortality, migration, marital status, and economics. A ratio of 1,000 signifies gender parity, while ratios above 1,000 suggest an excess of females, and those below 1,000 indicate a deficit. Read this article to know about the Indian Sex Ratio 2024 State-wise and also the Estimated Women and Men 2024 Report

Indian Sex Ratio 2024

India’s Sex ratio is 106.453 males per 100 females, or we can say 743,392,561, or 743.39 million males and 698,327,291, or 698.29 million females. In terms of percentage, the male population is 51.56 percent compared to 48.44 percent of the female population. There are a few points as follows:-

  • India has the highest number of exceed males population of 45.08 million. 
  • India is at 214th position out of 236 countries and territories in terms of female-to-male ratio. 
  • Among Asian countries, its position is 40th out of 51 countries and territories.
  • In India, the male-to-female ratio has increased from 105.676 in 1950 to a peak value of 107.432 in 1978. 
  • This ratio is projected to decline to 101.944 in 2100.
  • With about 107.1 boys born for every 100 girls, India has the world’s 17th most skewed sex ratio at birth. 
  • This ratio has been declining since 2010, when it peaked at 109.6 boys per 100 girls.
  • The males-to-females ratio is at the highest point of 110.379 for the age group 20-24. 
  • With 108.836 boys per 100 girls (0-14 age group), India has the 12th most skewed child-sex ratio. 
  • The men-to-women ratio is 107.432 for the group aged 15–64 and 90.779 for those over 65. 
  • India has more males than females aged below 60 years. 
  • Men are two-thirds of women aged below 90 years.

NFHS-5 Survey for Indian Sex Ratio

According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) for 2020-21, India’s Sex Ratio in 2023 was 1020 females per 1000 males.

  • In rural areas, the sex ratio is 1037, and in urban areas, it’s 985 females to 1000 males.
    The sex ratio at birth also continues to be lower than what is expected.
  • In 2022-23, the sex ratio at birth improved by 15 points to 933.
  • The sex ratio at birth for children born in the last five years in India is 929 females per 1,000 males.
  • However, in 2015-17, sex ratio in India at birth (SRB) came down to an all-time low of 896.
    Kerala has the highest sex ratio in India, with 1084 females for every 1000 males.
  • The overall gender ratio of Indian states is poor compared to developed countries.
Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males) 2011 Census 2023 (NFHS-5 Survey)
Rural 949 1037
Urban 929 985
India 943 1020

Male Female Ratio in India

  • India’s sex ratio in 2023 is 1,020 females per 1,000 males.
  • The sex ratio in rural areas is 985 females to 1,000 males, and in urban areas, it’s 985 females to 1,000 males.
    The sex ratio at birth has improved by 15 points from 918 in 2014-15 to 933 in 2022-23.
  • The sex ratio at birth went up by three points to 907 in 2018-20 from 904 in 2017-19.
  • The current population of India is 1,441,459,746, with a current male population of 51.6% and a current female population of 48.4%.

Types of Sex Ratio

There are 4 types of sex ratios divided according to the stages of development.

  • Primary Sex Ratio- (Fertilization)
  • Secondary Sex Ratio- (Birth Ratio)
  • Tertiary Sex Ratio- (in Developed Organism)
  • Quaternary Sex Ratio or Adult Sex Ratio – (Post-Reproductive Orgaism, above the age of 60 years)

Sex Ratio in India

According to the 2011 census, the male and female populations in India are 623.7 million and 586.4 million, respectively, out of a total population of 1210.1 million. Sex Ratio in India stands at 943, indicating that for every 1,000 males, there are 943 females.

A skewed sex ratio favouring males is a concerning signal, often associated with a higher risk of female fetal mortality. This issue is particularly prevalent in regions where parents selectively choose the gender of their children, leading to the tragic practice of female foeticide. The declining sex ratios present a significant threat to India’s future female population.

Child Sex Ratio (CSR)

The Child Sex Ratio (CSR), representing the number of females per 1,000 males in the 0–6-year-old category, is a critical demographic indicator. India’s CSR was 927 in the 2001 census but saw a decline to 918 in the 2011 census. The sex ratio is calculated using the formula:

Sex Ratio = (Number of Females / Number of Males) x 1000

Historical Perspective of Sex Ratio in India Trends

The sex ratio in India, a critical demographic indicator, has consistently declined since 1901, as per Census data. The world sex ratio standard measures the Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) as the number of boys born per 100 girls. India uses a different metric, recording female births per 1,000 male births. This alarming trend isn’t restricted to specific age groups; it reflects a broader imbalance, with the general sex ratio falling from 972 in 1901 to 940 in 2011.

India’s historical bias against females is evident in this data. The post-independence era saw a decline in the sex ratio for two decades, reaching a low of 930 in 1971, with some fluctuations after that. The latest provisional results suggest a slight improvement, but the issue of an unfavorable sex ratio persists as a significant concern, demanding continued attention and measures to promote gender equality.

Check out the linked article on the UPSC Syllabus 2024

Sex ratio of India From 1901 to 2021

S.N. Census Year Sex Ratio (females/1000 males)
1. 1901 972
2. 1911 964
3. 1921 955
4. 1931 950
5. 1941 945
6. 1951 946
7. 1961 941
8. 1971 930
9. 1981 934
10. 1991 927
11. 2001 933
12. 2011 943
13. 2021 1,020

Check out the linked article on the UPSC Mains Syllabus 2024 Here!

Sex Ratio of States and UTs Data

State/UT Rank Name of state or Union Territory Sex Ratio  of India 2021
1. Kerala 1084
2. Puducherry 1038
3. Tamil Nadu 995
4. Andhra Pradesh 992
5. Chhattisgarh 991
6. Manipur 987
7. Meghalaya 986
8. Odisha 978
9. Mizoram 975
10. Himachal Pradesh 974
11. Karnataka 968
12. Goa 968
13. Uttarakhand 963
14. Tripura 961
15. Assam 954
16. Jharkhand 947
17. West Bengal 947
18. Lakshadweep 946
19. Nagaland 931
20. Madhya Pradesh 930
21. Rajasthan 926
22. Maharashtra 925
23. Arunachal Pradesh 920
24. Gujarat 918
25. Bihar 916
26. Uttar Pradesh 908
27. Punjab 893
28. Sikkim 889
29. Jammu& Kashmir 883
30. Andaman & Nicobar islands 878
31. Haryana 877
32. NCT of Delhi 866
33. Chandigarh 818
34. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 775
35. Daman and Diu 618
Overall India 943

State-wise Sex ratio in India 2024

Highest sex ratio of India

  1. Kerala (1084)
  2. Tamil Nadu (995)
  3. Andhra Pradesh (992)

Lowest sex ratio of India

  1. Haryana (877)
  2. Jammu and Kashmir (883)
  3. Sikkim (889)

Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) – Top Performers

  1. Mizoram (971)
  2. Meghalaya (970)
  3. Chhattisgarh (964)

Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) – Lowest Performers

  1. Haryana (830)
  2. Punjab (846)
  3. Jammu and Kashmir (859)

Union Territories (UTs) – Top Overall Sex Ratio

  1. Puducherry (1038)
  2. Lakshadweep (946)
  3. Andaman and Nicobar Islands (878)

Union Territories (UTs) – Lowest Overall Sex Ratio

  1. Daman and Diu (618)
  2. Dadra and Nagar Haveli (775)
  3. Chandigarh (818)

States and UTs with Declining Overall Sex Ratios

  1. Bihar
  2. Jammu and Kashmir
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep

Improving Child Sex Ratios (0-6 years) in Census 2011

  1. Punjab (798 to 846, +57 points)
  2. Haryana (819 to 830, +11 points)
  3. Himachal Pradesh (896 to 906, +10 points)
  4. Chandigarh (845 to 867, +22 points)
  5. Gujarat (883 to 886, +3 points)
  6. Tamil Nadu (942 to 946, +4 points)
  7. Mizoram (964 to 971, +7 points)
  8. Andaman & Nicobar Islands (957 to 966, +9 points)

Telangana Demographics (formed in 2014)

  • Total Population: 351.94 lakhs
  • Male Population: 177.04 lakhs
  • Female Population: 174.90 lakhs
  • Sex Ratio (Female per 1000 Males): 988
  • Child Sex Ratio: 933

Sex Ratio at Birth

While the overall sex ratio is positive, it’s important to note that the sex ratio at birth (SRB) is still skewed towards boys compared to the natural SRB, which is 952 girls per 1,000 boys. States like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and Maharashtra exhibit lower SRB.

Women and Men in India 2022 Report

Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has released the Women and Men in India 2022 report.

Improvement in Sex Ratio

  • India’s expected sex ratio is projected to improve significantly from 943 in 2011 to 952 by 2036, per the Women and Men in India 2022 report.
  • The sex ratio at birth increased by three points from 904 in 2017-19 to 907 in 2018-20, according to the Union Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

Gender Disparities in the Labour Force

  • Women’s participation in the labour force remains low in India, hindering their financial independence.
  • India’s Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for those above 15 years of age has risen since 2017-2018, but women significantly lag behind men.
  • In 2021-22, the LFPR was 77.2% for males but only 32.8% for females, with no improvement in this disparity.
  • The low participation of women in the labor force is attributed to social factors, educational qualifications, and gender discrimination in wages and opportunities.
  • Wage disparities persist, with men in rural areas earning more than women in urban areas for similar work.

Population Trends

  • India’s population growth has been on a downward trend, decreasing from 2.2% in 1971 to 1.1% in 2021, and is projected to fall further to 0.58% by 2036.
  • The female population share is expected to marginally improve from 48.5% in Census 2011 to 48.8% in 2036.
  • Population projections indicate a decline in the population under 15 years of age and an increase in the population above 60 years by 2036. This shift will reshape the population pyramid.
  • The age and sex structure of the population significantly impact gender-related issues, influenced by trends in fertility and mortality.
  • Gender disparities in access to healthcare persist, with women facing challenges due to limited access to resources, decision-making power, and mobility.

Age-Specific Fertility Rate

  • The age-specific fertility rate, reflecting live births in specific age groups of women per thousand females in that age group, has shown changes.
  • For the age groups of 20-24 years and 25-29 years, the fertility rate decreased from 135.4 and 166.0 to 113.6 and 139.6, respectively, between 2016 and 2020. This decrease is associated with economic independence through education and employment.
  • However, the same indicator for the 35-39 age group increased from 32.7 in 2016 to 35.6 in 2020.
  • The mean age for marriage has marginally improved from 22.1 years in 2017 to 22.7 years in 2020.
  • Other positive trends include a decline in infant and under-five mortality rates, as indicated by data from the National Family Health Survey.

Check out the linked article on the UPSC Study Material 2024

Reasons for Declining Sex Ratio in India

The declining sex ratio of India can be attributed to several factors, including:

  • Son Preference: Cultural preference for male children leads to sex-selective practices.
  • Gender Disparity at Birth: More male births compared to female births.
  • Female Infanticide: Despite being illegal, it still occurs in some regions.
  • Sex Determination Testing: Preference for males leads to sex determination tests and potential pregnancy termination.
  • Ineffective Laws: Challenges in implementing laws against sex selection.
  • Small Family Norms: Some couples opt for smaller families if they have a male child.
  • Dowry Practices: Economic pressures due to dowry can lead to neglect of female children.
  • Surplus of Males: Imbalance can lead to difficulties in finding suitable partners for men, resulting in social issues.

Check out the linked article on the UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024 Here!

National Family Health Survey-5 Findings

Key findings from the NFHS-5 survey reveal significant demographic trends in India:

Sex Ratio Improvement

The data from 2019-2021 indicates a notable improvement in the sex ratio, with 1,020 women for every 1,000 men, marking the highest sex ratio recorded in NFHS surveys since the first modern synchronous census in 1881.

Steps Taken to Improve Sex Ratio

Several steps have been taken in India to improve the sex ratio, including:

  • Legal Ban on Sex Determination: The PCPNDT (Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques) Act strictly prohibits sex determination during pregnancy, aiming to prevent selective abortions based on gender.
  • National Girl Child Day: In 2012, January 24th was declared National Girl Child Day, emphasizing the importance of the girl child and promoting gender equality.
  • Sabla Scheme: Launched on International Women’s Day in 2011, the Sabla scheme focuses on empowering adolescent girls by promoting self-development, improving their health and nutrition, and raising awareness about various aspects of health, hygiene, nutrition, and reproductive health.
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme: Initiated in 2015 in Panipat, Haryana, this scheme has three main objectives:
    • Prevention of gender-biased sex-selective elimination.
    • Ensuring the survival and protection of the girl child.
    • Promoting education and active participation of the girl child.

These measures represent a concerted effort by the Indian government and various stakeholders to combat gender discrimination and improve the sex ratio, with a particular focus on empowering and safeguarding the rights of girls and women.

Check the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme in detail here.

Difference Between Sex Ratio and Gender Ratio

Sex Ratio Gender Ratio
Biological sex Social gender
Sex ratio is the ratio of females to males per 1000 individuals in a population. The proportion of males to females in a society is known as the gender ratio.
Sex ratio =Number of females/Number of males The gender ratio is not stable but instead shaped by biological, social, technological, cultural, and economic forces.

Sex Ratio in India UPSC

  • Sex ratio of India has steadily declined since 1901, with the 2011 census reporting 943 females per 1,000 males.
  • Root causes include cultural son preference, gender disparities at birth, and sex-selective practices like female infanticide.
  • Measures to address this issue include banning sex determination during pregnancy, promoting National Girl Child Day, and schemes like Sabla and Beti Bachao Beti Padhao.
  • Despite efforts, gender disparities persist in labour force participation and healthcare access.
  • India’s future demographics indicate declining population growth and an evolving age structure, underscoring the ongoing need to combat gender imbalances and promote equality.

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Sex Ratio in India FAQs

What is the current sex ratio of India 2023?

India's Sex Ratio in 2023 is assessed to be 1,020 Females Per 1,000 Males.

Which state has highest sex ratio in India?

Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084 in all Indian states.

Which state has Lowest sex ratio in India?

Haryana has the lowest sex ratio (877) in Indian states while in union territory Daman Diu has lowest sex ratio of 618.

What is the child ratio in India?

As per the census data in India, in 2001, the child sex ratio (0-6 years) in India was 927 girls per 1,000 boys and in 2011, it dropped to 918 girls for every 1,000 boys.

About the Author

Greetings! I'm Piyush, a content writer at StudyIQ. I specialize in creating enlightening content focused on UPSC and State PSC exams. Let's embark on a journey of discovery, where we unravel the intricacies of these exams and transform aspirations into triumphant achievements together!

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