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Diversity of India, Types, Constitutional Provisions, Associated Challenges

About Diversity of India

In India, diversity means that people vary from one another in terms of their physical characteristics as well as their regional, cultural, and religious beliefs. Language and ritual variations are just a few examples of the differences. The lives of Indians are enriched by this variety. This article will assist students in comprehending diversity and its forms in India. The UPSC Syllabus includes Diversity of India as a significant topic Indian Society for UPSC Exam. The UPSC Mock Test can help candidates prepare for the exam with more precision.

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What is Diversity of India?

The term “diversity” emphasizes differences more than injustice. It alludes to differences between groups of people or inequalities within those groups. These distinctions could be linguistic, philosophical, biological, or in any other way. Diversity is the wide range of racial groups, religions, dialects, castes, and cultural traditions.

Integrity means harmony. It is a societal psychological condition. It implies a feeling of cohesion and harmony. It stands for the bonds that bind members of a community together. “Unity in diversity” essentially refers to “diversity without fragmentation” and “unity without uniformity.” The foundation of it is the notion that diversity improves interpersonal dialogue.

When we say that India is a nation with a rich cultural diversity, we mean the many different social and cultural subgroups that call India home. These groups distinguish themselves mainly by cultural characteristics such as language, faith, sect, race, or caste.

Also Read: Caste System in India

Types of Diversity in India

Cultural Diversity of India

India’s cultural diversity is a rich tapestry woven from a myriad of traditions, languages, religions, and customs. This vibrant mosaic has been shaped by centuries of interaction between diverse cultures, both within India and beyond its borders. The result is a country that is as diverse as it is vast, with each region offering its own unique blend of customs, traditions, and beliefs.

Religious Diversity of India

Due to the rich diversity of India is called the ‘land of diversity’. India is a nation where many various religions are practised. Hindus make up the majority of the people in India (82.41%), followed by Muslims (11.6%), Christians (2.32%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.77%), and Jains (0.41%), as well as the tribal groups, many of which still engage in animism and magic. There are numerous groups within the Hindu religion, including the Vaishnavas, Shaivites, Shaktas, and Smartas. There are numerous Muslim groups as well, such as Shi’ites, Sunnis, Ahmadis, etc.

Language Diversity of India

The Dravidian languages, spoken by 20% of Indians, and the Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by 75% of Indians, are the two main language groups among the languages spoken in India. Other languages can be found in the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and a few other minor language groups and isolates. India has the second-highest number of languages in the globe, right behind Papua New Guinea. According to the 1931 census, the ethnic diversity of India was split into the following groups: Western Brachycephalians, Negritos, Proto-Australoids, Mongoloid, Mediterranean, and Nordic.

Caste Diversity in India

Members of the three main global races—Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid—are included in the caste diversity: India is a country that Both varna and jati have previously been referred to as “caste.” The four Varna categories that functional differentiation divides society into are described as such. a Shudra, a Vaishya, a Kshatriya, and a Brahmin.

While “Jati” refers to a hereditary endogamous status group practising a particular customary trade. There isn’t a single method in place in all of India for categorizing and ranking the more than 3000 jatis. The dynamic and mobile nature of the Jati system has enabled Jatis to change its location over time. This process of ascent was referred to as “Sanskritization” by M. N. Srinivas.

Ethnic Diversity of India

Ethnic diversity Cultural trends reveal regional variations. Indian culture is very varied and a fusion of many other cultures as a result of the country’s diverse population. Every country, caste, and faith has its distinctive customs and cultures. There are consequently differences in music, dance, theatre, and architecture.

Geographic Diversity in India

India is a large country with a total land area of 3.28 million square kilometres and a diverse range of natural environments, including deserts, evergreen woods, steep mountains, perennial and non-perennial river systems, long coastlines, and fertile plains. India has diversity in many other areas besides the main ones already mentioned, including tribal, rural, and urban patterns of habitation, patterns of marriage and kinship along religious and regional lines, and more.

Diversity of India and Constitutional Provisions

A single person with a constitutional identity is chosen to lead the complete country. Furthermore, regardless of their age, gender, class, caste, or religion, all citizens are guaranteed certain basic rights under the Constitution, even though the majority of states adhere to a standard three-tier structure of government.

Religion India is known for its tolerance, which makes it possible for a wide variety of beliefs to coexist there. The freedom of faith and practice is guaranteed by the Constitution itself. The state has no official state religion and gives all religions similar priority. The freedom of mobility guaranteed by Article 19 (1) (d) of the Indian Constitution promotes a spirit of brotherhood and unity among the populace.

The uniformity of the law, penal code, and administrative duties are additional factors that contribute to consistency in the criminal justice system and policy execution (such as All India Services). By enabling “one country, one tax, one national market,” the Goods and Service Tax (GST) has cleared the way for regional cohesion. Additionally, Article 21 of the Indian Constitution promises freedom of commerce, trade, and intercourse relations within Indian Territory.

Diversity of India From North to South and East to West

  • In India, spirituality and faith are very significant. From Badrinath and Kedarnath in the north to Rameshwaram in the south, Jagannath Puri in the east, and Dwaraka in the west, religious sites and sacred rivers can be found all over the length and width of the nation.
  • They have a strong connection to the age-old practice of pilgrimage, which has always attracted people to various parts of the country and given them a sense of geo-cultural identification.
  • Because people from all over the country attend fairs and festivals, they also function as integrating factors. Similar to how Muslims and Christians celebrate Id and Christmas, so do Hindus across the country on Diwali. Interreligious holidays are also celebrated in India.
  • The entire Indian subcontinent’s flora and fauna, agricultural pursuits, and way of life, including vacations, are impacted by weather integration through the monsoon season. The country as a whole enjoys sports and movies, which act as unifying factors.

Diversity of India and Associated Threats and Challenges

Diversity of India faces certain threats and the social fabric of the society gets disrupted by the following means and modes are mentioned below:


In contrast to national interests, regionalism frequently emphasizes the interests of a specific area or region. It may also harm national unity. Regional demands and the resulting unrest have a negative impact on law and order.

Divisive Politics

Politicians will occasionally invoke ascriptive identities like caste, faith, etc. to win support. Violence, feelings of distrust, and suspicion among minorities can result from this kind of polarizing politics.

Development Imbalance

The backwardness of a region can be brought on by uneven socioeconomic growth, poor economic policies, and the resulting economic disparities. As a result, this may spark acts of violence, ignite migration surges, or even fuel separatist demands. For instance, the North East area has experienced a rise in secessionist demands and tendencies due to the region’s economic disadvantage.

Ethnic Differentiation

Conflicts between various ethnic groups have frequently resulted from ethnic differences, particularly as a result of issues like employment competition, a lack of resources, identity threats, etc. For instance, Bodos and Muslims who understand Bengali frequently fight in Assam. The Son of the Land doctrine, which links people to their place of birth and bestows upon them certain advantages, rights, roles, and obligations that may not apply to others, has served to emphasize this.

Geographical Isolation

Geographic isolation can also result in identity problems and calls for secession. Because the Siliguri corridor, which connects the North-East to the rest of the nation, is so narrow, the region is physically isolated from the rest of the nation. The area is relatively more backward than the rest of the nation and has poor infrastructure. This has led to several incidents of secession and cross-border terrorism, among other things.

Inter-Religious Conflicts

Interreligious conflicts damage the secular fabric of the nation as well as relations between two communities by sowing distrust and dread.

Inter-State Conflicts

This may cause feelings of regionalism to develop. Additionally, it may have an impact on interstate commerce and contact. Consider the conflict over the Cauvery River between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. External forces like terrorist organizations or extremist groups can occasionally instigate violence and sow feelings of secession. Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), for instance, has been charged with aiding and training mujahideen to engage in combat in Jammu and Kashmir and fostering separatist sentiment among local organizations.

Diversity of India UPSC

The problem, not diversity itself, is how it is handled in Indian culture. Problems like regionalism, communalism, and ethnic conflicts have arisen as a result of an unfair distribution of the benefits of growth or an undervaluation of some groups’ cultures. As a result, the Constitution and its principles must be the cornerstone of our community. Any society that has tried to become homogeneous has eventually experienced stagnation and decline. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

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Diversity of India FAQs

Why India is called diversity?

India is called the 'land of diversity' because India have various types of food, speak different languages, celebrate different festivals, and practice different religions and traditions.

How many parts of diversity are there in India?

Modern India stands as one of the most diverse countries in the world, a subcontinent that is home to over 100 languages, over 700 different tribes.

What is diversity definition?

It means collective differences, that is, differences which mark off one group of people from another.

What is the main cause of diversity in India?

There are various reasons but the following are considered as the major reasons for diversity in India: geography of India, which includes the plains, the plateaus, the deserts, the mountains, etc.

What is the concept of diversity?

Diversity means having a range of people with various racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural backgrounds and various lifestyles, experience, and interests.

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