UPSC Prelims News of 20 February 2023
Context: The Union Minister of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying recently launched the Sagar Parikrama Phase-III from Hazira Port, Gujarat.
About Sagar Parikrama
- Sagar Parikrama is an initiative launched by the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
- The main objectives:
- To facilitate interaction with fishermen, coastal communities and stakeholders so as to disseminate information of various fisheries related schemes and programs being implemented by the Government
- Demonstrating solidarity with all fisher folk, fish farmers and concerned stakeholder as a spirit of Atma Nirbhar Bharat
- To promote responsible fisheries with focus on sustainable balance between the utilisation of marine fisheries resources for food security of nation and livelihoods of coastal fisher communities
- Protection of marine ecosystems
- Celebration: Sagar Parikrama program is proposed to be celebrated in all coastal states/UTs through a pre-decided sea route along coastal states and islands.
- It includes interaction programmes with fishermen, fisher communities and stakeholders in these locations and districts in order to know the problems of Coastal Fisher folk.
- Other activities: Certificates will be awarded to progressive fishermen, especially coastal fishermen, fish farmers, young fishery entrepreneurs etc, under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampadha scheme, Kisan Credit Card, and state schemes.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Context: The Prime Minister recently paid homage to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj on his Jayanti.
About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri in Pune district, in 1630. His father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general in the service of the Deccan Sultanates.
- Shivaji was brought up by his mother Jijabai and by his administrator Dadoji Kond Deo, who taught him basic skills.
- Shivaji started capturing nearby Deccani forts with his band of followers. He killed Bijapuri General Afzal Khan, who was sent to kill him.
- Coronation: In 1674, Shivaji Maharaj was crowned as the ruler of Maratha Empire in Raigadh. He assumed the title of ‘Chhatrapati’.
- Naval warfare: Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj put great emphasis on sea-faring prowess, and laid the foundations of a modern naval force in the 17th century.
- Fort architecture: Shivaji Maharaj is credited for having developed a large number of forts which acted as a force multiplier for the defender.
- Administration: Shivaji constituted the Ashta Pradhan Mandal (Council of Eight Ministers). They advised Shivaji on political and administrative matters.
- Promotion of indigenous languages: Shivaji replaced Persian with Marathi as the official language. He also promoted Sanskrit.
- Religious policies: Shivaji adopted liberal and tolerant religious policies. Subjects belonging to other religions were freely allowed to practice without harassment.
- Army Warfare: Shivaji adopted guerilla tactics as a mode of warfare against his enemies.
Context: Recently, the world’s First International Summit on the Responsible Use of Artificial intelligence in the Military (REAIM 2023) was held in the Hague, Netherlands.
- The REAIM 2023 brings together governments, corporations, academia, startups, and civil societies to raise awareness, discuss issues, and possibly, agree on common principles for deploying and using AI in armed conflicts.
- The conference, co-hosted by South Korea, hosted 80 government delegations (including those from the US and China), and over 100s of researchers and defence contractors.
- India was not a participant in the summit.
Themes of REAIM 2023:
- Myth busting the characteristics of AI
- Responsible deployment and use of AI
- Governance frameworks for responsible AI
- Putting the topic of ‘responsible AI in the military domain’ higher on the political agenda;
- Mobilising and activating a wide group of stakeholders to contribute to concrete next steps;
- Fostering and increasing knowledge by sharing experiences, best practices and solutions.
Context: Around 285 children in the five to 15 age group rescued as part of ‘Operation Svechha’ in Andhra Pradesh.
About the Operation
- Operation Svechha is a Rescue Operation led by the Andhra Pradesh Police against child trafficking.
- Operation Svechha exposes the trafficking of children from other States to Andhra Pradesh.
- Officers of the Labour, Police, Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs), Education, Medical and Health, Women Development and Child Welfare and other departments, along with NGOs, participated in the week-long raids conducted recently as part of the operation.
- The Crime Investigation Department (CID) monitored the drive.
- Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
- Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.
Teja Hot Chilli
Context: The demand for the popular Teja variety of red chilli, in the export market is proving to be a boon for the Khammam Agriculture Market, in Telangana.
About Teja Hot Chilli
- Teja or S17 is one of the hottest varieties of red chillies produced in India.
- The chilli is known and liked across the country for its fierce hot flavour and rich aroma.
- It has a hot tingling taste and an eye-watering peppery flavour.
- This is a highly pungent chilli.
- Teja variety of red chilli, famous for its culinary, medicinal and other wide-ranging uses.
- Khammam district (Telangana), the largest producer of the Teja variety of red chilli, is the leading exporter of the pungent fruit which is not only known for its culinary purpose as a flavouring agent to spice up various delicacies but as a main ingredient in making pepper spray.
- Teja variety of red chilli is being exported to China, Bangladesh and a few other south Asian countries from Khammam mainly through the Chennai port.
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)
Context: IBBI has directed RBSA Valuation Advisors LLP not to take any new assignments for six months, alleging violations of rules in determining the liquidation value of Videocon Industries.
About the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)
- The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India was established on 1st October, 2016 under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
- Objective: It is a key pillar of the ecosystem responsible for implementation of the IBC.
- IBC provides a consolidated framework that governs insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings for companies, partnership firms, and individuals.
- Headquarters: New Delhi
- Functions: It is a unique regulator – regulates a profession as well as processes.
- It has regulatory oversight over the Insolvency Professionals, Insolvency Professional Agencies, Insolvency Professional Entities and Information Utilities.
- It writes and enforces rules for processes, namely, corporate insolvency resolution, corporate liquidation, individual insolvency resolution and individual bankruptcy under the Code.
- It has also been designated as the ‘Authority’ under the Companies (Registered Valuers and Valuation Rules), 2017 for regulation and development of the profession of valuers in the country.
- The IBBI Board: The IBBI Governing Board is headed by the Chairperson. The other members of the IBBI Board include:
- Three whole time members
- A member from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
- Five members nominated by the Union Government of which three members function as full-time members.
Context: Pangolin, also known as an ecosystem engineer, is confronting the perils of massive poaching and illegal trafficking in India.
- Pangolins are a type of mammal that belong to the order Pholidota.
- They are also known as scaly anteaters because of their unique appearance, with large overlapping scales (with scales made of keratin) covering their body, which they use for protection against predators.
- They have long, sticky tongues, which they use to catch ants, termites, and other insects.
- They are nocturnal animals and spend much of their time in trees or burrows and are found in parts of Asia and Africa.
- They are also one of the most trafficked animals in the world due to the high demand for their meat and scales in traditional medicine and as luxury food items.
- Protection: All eight species of pangolins are considered endangered or critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- In India, the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) and the Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) are protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Hunting, poaching, trading, or possession of pangolins or their parts is illegal in India under this Act.
- Pangolins are also listed under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which means that international trade in pangolins or their parts is prohibited.
Bandipur Tiger Reserve
Context: An electrocuted elephant was saved at the Bandipur Tiger Reserve.
The Bandipur Tiger Reserve
- It was established in 1973 under Project Tiger.
- The Bandipur Tiger Reserve is situated in the Mysore and Chamarajanagar districts of southern Karnataka.
- It lies in one of the richest biodiversity areas of our country representing Western Ghats Mountains Biogeography Zone.
- It is surrounded by Mudumalai Tiger Reserve,Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kabini Reservoir separates the Bandipur and Nagarahole Tiger Reserve.
- The Bandipur along with Nagarahole, Mudumalai, Sathyamangalam & Wayanad constitutes the single largest Wild population of Tigers in the world.
- This Landscape is also home to the single largest Asian Elephant population in the world and is part of the Mysore Elephant Reserve (MER).
Tiger Reserves in Karnataka
- The State has 5 Tiger Reserves namely: Bandipur, Bhadra, Nagarahole, Dandeli-Anshi and Biligiriranganatha Swamy Temple (BRT) Tiger Reserves.