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Tughlaq Dynasty, History, Founder, Rulers List and Decline

Tughlaq Dynasty

The Tughlaq family, which had Indian Turkish origins, arose during the medieval era of history. The Tughlaq dynasty’s main duty was to preserve the Sultanate of Delhi. The dynasty was governed by a number of kings between 1320 and 1413, including Muhammad Bin Tughlaq and Ghazi Malik. The Tughlaq dynasty’s invasion considerably altered both India’s domestic and foreign policies. You can find references to the Tughlaq dynasty and other rulers of this era in this article, which also serves as an essential part of the UPSC Syllabus

Tughlaq Dynasty History

India was governed by the Indo-Turkish Tughlaq Dynasty during the Middle Ages. They also went by the name Tughlaq. From 1320 to 1414, they reigned over the Delhi Sultanate. It belonged to the Delhi Sultanate’s third era. One of the key eras of the Delhi Sultanate’s reign was the Tughlaq Dynasty. The Khalji Dynasty ruled the Delhi Sultanate prior to 1320. Khusro Khan, the last ruler of that dynasty, was deposed by aristocrats after receiving insufficient support from Muslim nobles. They asked Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq to do so.

Khusro Khan Ascension to the throne was accomplished by the killing of Mubarak Khilji, the last ruler of the Khilji Dynasty, and other members of the Khilji family. Ghazi Malik, a governor in Punjab during the Khiljis (later known as Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq), was asked by Delhi’s top brass to remove Khusro Khan. Ghazi Malik’s mother was a Punjabi Jat, while his father was of Turk ancestry.

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Tughlaq Dynasty Founder

The founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty, Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq, also known as Ghazi Malik, repeatedly stopped the Mongol invasion of India. His restoration of the Ala-ud-din’s legal order was his best success. Ghiyas-ud-din rose from obscurity to become the province legislative chairman of Dinapur under Mubarak Khilji’s guidance.

The founder of the Tughlaq family was Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. He was commonly referred to as Ghazi Malik. For Mongols, Ghazi Malik’s strategy was quite harsh. In reality, it’s claimed that Ghiyasuddin assassinated Oljeitu’s messenger, who oversaw Iran and harshly punished the Mongol POWs. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq also built the renowned Tughlaqabad fort. Multanis served as the head of the administration that Ghiyasuddin had created. This demonstrated his Punjabi and Depalpuri political base. Ghiyasuddin was responsible for the death of Khusrau Khan, the last member of the Khilji family.

Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers List

The Tughlaq dynasty was mainly in charge of the Delhi sultanate. It lasted from 1320 to 1413 and was presided over by a number of kings, including Ghazi Malik and Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. The Tughlaq family was founded by Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq. The final head of this empire was Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq.

Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers Time Period
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320-25
Muhammed Bin Tuglaq 1325-51
Feroz Shah Tughlaq 1351-88
Mohammed Khan 1388
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah 2 1388
Abu Bakar Khan 1389-90
Nasiruddin Muhammed 1390-94
Humayun 1394-95
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud 1395-1412

Tughlaq Dynasty Importans Rulers

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik

Ghiyas-ud-din The Tughluq Empire was established by Tughluq, also known as Ghazi Malik. The treatment of the Mongols was severe under Tughluq. He had murdered Ilkhan Oljeitu envoys and harshly treated Mongol captives. Additionally, he began work on the Tughlaqabad Fort. Tughlaq established a stable government under his rule that was controlled by Multanis, reflecting the methods he employed to seize power as well as Dipalpur and Punjab, his native power base. He was born into poverty and became successful.

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Domestic and Foreign Policies

In his kingdom, Ghiyas-ud-din restored order. He prioritized police, judicial, irrigation, farm, and postal services more highly. He assumed the crown in the year 1320. He established authority over Warangal, Utkala or Orissa, and Bengal. He captured and imprisoned the Mongol commanders who invaded North India.

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Rule End

Ghiyas-ud-din was crushed to death in 1325 A.D. while taking part in a celebration of his triumphs in Bengal. He was followed by Junakhan, the crown prince.


The crown heir took the name Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1325 A.D. Junakhan. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq advocated for the political and governmental union of India. He conquered Warangal in 1327 AD.

Mzuhammad-bin-Tughlaq Domestic Policies

To conquer Khurasan, Iraq, and Transoxiana, he raised an army of 3,70,000 men. Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s national treasure had a great burden due to the policy of huge presents given to Tamashirin, the Mongol leader to avoid Mongol Invasion. Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s domestic policies were good but due to faulty implementation measures, they failed. The decline of the Delhi Sultanate is claimed due to his hasty decisions and defective policy implementation.

He increased taxes in the Doab area to fill the empty coffers. To escape paying high taxes, a large number of people fled to the forests, neglecting agriculture and leading to a severe food shortage. To safeguard his capital, he moved it from Delhi to Devagiri. He also ordered the general populace and government officials to relocate there. After much difficulty, he ordered them to return to Delhi. He established the copper-based monetary system. He had to remove the copper token currency because coins lost value.

He gathered a 3,70,000-man force to conquer Transoxiana, Iraq, and Khurasan. Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s national treasure bore a heavy weight as a result of his strategy of giving Tamashirin, the leader of the Mongols, enormous gifts in order to prevent an invasion. Although Mohammed-bin-Tughluq’s domestic policies were sound, their implementation was poor, which contributed to their failure. He is said to have made rash choices and implemented bad policies, which led to the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.

Firoz Tughlaq

Firoz Tughlaq was the younger sibling of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq in 1351 A.D. He was the throne’s heir. All of Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq’s Taquavi (agricultural) debts were repaid by him. He increased the revenue agents’ pay. He put a stop to all illegitimate and unfair taxes. In addition to digging numerous irrigation channels, he also built 150 wells, 100 bridges, and 50 dams. Towns like Firozabad, Hissar, Jaunpur, and Fatehabad were built by him. Firoz forbade violence and all forms of harm. He assessed the Brahmins with jizya.

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Firoz Tughlaq Foreign Policy

Bengal was encircled by Firoz Tughlaq in 1353 and 1359 A.D. He took hold of Jainagar. He destroyed the Puri Jagannath Temple.

Firoz Tughlaq Administrative Policy

Khan-e-Jehan Maqbool, a converted Hindu, assisted in a number of reforms and Public activity project activity. he reinstituted the Alauddin Jagir system rather than giving his military commanders cash salaries. Iqtas were given to administrators and warriors, and their posts became hereditary. Because there were fewer skilled Warriors available. This had a negative impact on the Firozian forces.

Feroz Shah institutionalized enslavement through business ventures and royal workshops. A distinct Department called Diwan-i-Bandagan was created for public welfare. The Deewan-i-Khairat was created by the government as part of its Charity program to help the underprivileged, orphans, widows, and unobtrusive Muslim women who required financial assistance. An example of a charity hospital in Delhi was Darul Shafa, which offered free meals and medical care. Additionally, he established the nonprofit Diwan-i-Istibqaq, which offers assistance to those who are in need and the poor.

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Tughlaq Dynasty Last Ruler

Nasir-ud-Din Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah, another name for Mahmud Shah Tughluq, was the final sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to govern the Islamic Delhi Sultanate.

Decline of Tughlaq Dynasty

Feroz Shah Tughlaq’s Successors lacked both skill and power. By the end of the 14th century, the majority of regions had gained their independence, but Punjab and Delhi were still under Tughlaq’s control. But Timur’s assault in 1398 A.D. brought an end to the Tughlaq dynasty.

Tughlaq Dynasty UPSC

Dynasty of Tughlaq In the history section of the UPSC Syllabus’s ancient history, UPSC is a crucial topic. Students studying for the IAS exam must thoroughly cover each subject. Learn about all of the Tughlaq Dynasty’s kings in this page, along with their administrative reforms, stances, timelines, successors, etc. Candidates preparing for UPSC can visit the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching for more details about UPSC.

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What is Tughlaq dynasty in brief?

The Tughlaq dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India.

Who defeated Tughlaq dynasty?

The Battle of Singoli took place in Singoli, India, in 1326 CE between the Mewar forces under Hammir Singh and the Tughlaq forces under Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Hammir Singh won the battle and imprisoned Mohammad bin Tughlaq

Who was the greatest ruler of Tughlaq dynasty?

Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq, Muhammed Bin Tuglaq, and Firoz Shah Tughlaq were the greatest ruler of Tughlaq Dynasty.

Who were the three famous rulers of Tughlaq dynasty?

Ideally, there were three important Tughlaq dynasty rulers - Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq, Muhammed Bin Tuglaq, and Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

What was the achievement of Tughlaq dynasty?

The Tughlaq dynasty was established by Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq. He repulsed the Mongol invaders numerous times. By killing Khurso Khan, he was made Sultan. His greatest accomplishment was the revival of Ala-ud-Din's legal system.

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