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The Delhi Sultanate’s second reigning dynasty was the Khilji Dynasty. It was founded by Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji after the Slave kingdom was overthrown. Although it only held power for about 30 years (1290–1320), the Khilji Dynasty brought about numerous long-lasting changes. The Khilji dynasty’s most potent ruler, Alauddin Khilji, oversaw a number of military victories as well as numerous reforms. This article has all the details related to Khilji Dynasty one of important topic of Medival History Subject of UPSC Syllabus.
Khalji Dynasty History
After overthrowing the Slave dynasty and becoming the second dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, the Khilji or Khalji dynasty governed from. Along with Muhammad Ghori, they were Turko-Afghans who had fled Afghanistan. The Mamluk kingdom of Delhi had the Khaljis as its vassals. The Khilji family was started by Jalaluddin Khilji. (1290-1296).
During the Khalji era, Afghans began to share power with Turkic nobility who had previously held it exclusively. During its reign, South India was conquered, and it repeatedly repelled Mongol incursions into India with success. The Chahalgani’s authority was destroyed by the last major mamluk ruler, Balban, in his battle to retain control over his disobedient Turkish officers.
Khalji Dynasty Founder
Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji was the leader of the Khilji Dynasty. During this time, he was well known for supporting peace and opposing violence, earning him the nickname “Compassion Jalaluddin”. At Kara, he put an end to Malik Chhajju’s uprising. Ala-ud-din Khilji was proposed as the Kara Governor by Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji. Alauddin was both the son-in-law and cousin of Firoz Khilji. Mongols who hadn’t come until Sunam were attacked and vanquished by Jalal-ud-din. Alauddin Khilji, his son-in-law, deceived him and murdered him. Due to its emphasis on peace and non-violence, Firoz Khilji’s strategy was not well received by the populace.
Also Read: Slave Dynasty
Khalji Dynasty Rulers
The Khilji dynasty’s first and final rulers in India were Jalal-ud-din and Qutb-ud-Din. Khusro Khan put a stop to the dynasty in the year 1320 A.D. The principal kings of the Khilji Dynasty are listed below, along with the years they ruled.
Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji (1290-1296)
The Khilji kingdom was founded by him, and he served as its first king. When Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi, he murdered Kaikobad and overthrew Kayumarsd. He established Kilokhari as his headquarters and never ruled Delhi. One of the most significant occasions during his rule was the invasion of Devgiri. Although he loved peace, the Turkic nobility did not agree with his strategy. In 1296, his son-in-law Alauddin Khilji killed him.
Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316)
The Khilji Dynasty’s most potent ruler was Alauddin. He went by the moniker Ali Gurshasp and was known as Sikandar-e-Sani. During his reign, Indian Muslims in Delhi ascended to greater positions. In 1292, Jalaluddin made him the administrator of Kara. Following the divine doctrine of kingship, Alauddin referred to himself as the Khalifa’s deputy. The first Muslim emperor to expand his Empire all the way to the southernmost tip of the Indian subcontinent was Alauddin.
The first Delhiian Sultan to order land measurements and revenue collection based on those measurements was Alauddin Khilji. Land income was only ever taken in cash. On the strength of his competent military generals, such as Nusrat Khan, Ulugh Khan, and Malik Kafur, Alauddin Khilji also conducted numerous successful military operations throughout India. In a subsequent section of this article, the military campaigns are covered. Additionally, Alauddin effectively defended Delhi twelve times from Mongolian vision. In January 1316, Alauddin Khilji passed away.
Khilji Dynasty Rulers List
Below given is the complte list of all the Rulers of Khilji Dynasty with their tenure:
|Name of Sultan
|Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji
|Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah
Khilji dynasty Last Ruler
The Khilji dynasty was in turmoil following the passing of Alauddin Khilji, and there was constant fighting and a battle for succession. Shihabuddin Umar, Alauddin Khilji’s 6-year-old son, was seated on the throne by Malik Kafur, who also assumed the role of Regent. The plotting nobles shortly killed Shahabuddin Umar and Malik Kafur. The following Sultan was Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah, another son of Alauddin Khilji. Ghazi Malik was appointed as the Punjabi army’s leader by Mubarak Shah. The Khilji empire came to an end in 1320 when Ghazi Malik assassinated Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah.
Ala-ud-din Khilji and His Invasions
Khilji Invasions in the North
Gujarat was subdued for him by Ala-ud-din Khiliji’s generals, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan. After that, he invaded Ranthambore and assassinated Hamir Deva, its master. His conquest of Malwa, Chittor, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Marwar, Chanderi, and Jalor is also celebrated.
Khilji Invasions in the South
He was the first Sultan to ever invade Southern India in defiance. It was well known that he would dispatch his trusted commander Malik Kafur to battle the southern tyrants. In this manner, the Hoysala monarch Vira Ballala-III, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Prataprudra-II of Warangal were all vanquished. He boldly constructed a mosque in Rameswaram. The Southern Indian kingdoms at last recognized Alauddin Khilji’s power and gave him financial tribute.
Khilji Dynasty and Market Reforms
To formally establish the office market, a number of officials collectively known as Diwan-i-Riyasat were appointed. (Shahana-i-mandi). Before offering their wares for sale at a fixed price, the merchants were required to register with the Shahana-i-mandi (office). He also constructed the Fort of Siri and the Palace of a Thousand Pillars known as Alai Darwaza.
Khilji Dynasty and Domestic Policies
The Divine Right Theory of Kingship was upheld by the Alauddin Khilji. Alauddin Khilji started four laws to put an end to ongoing uprisings. There was never any other technique used for revenue collection; it was always done in cash. He firmly outlawed the illegal market. He established a price for necessities that was lower than the going rate on the market. He forbade drinking, social gatherings, and alcohol. He revised the spying strategy..
He took free property grants and donations made for the glory of God. In order to deter crime, he developed the branding technique for horses and the illustrative registration of individual warriors. A permanent standing military was provided by Alauddin Khilji’s plans. He raised the agricultural tax to 50%, with no choice for installment payments and requiring payment in the form of rural produce, cash, or grain. Non-Muslims were subject to four different types of taxation levied by Alauddin Khilji: Jizya (poll tax), Kari (house tax), Chari (field duty), and Kharaj (land tax).
Khilji Dynasty Art and Architecture
Alauddin Khilji was a strong advocate for both architecture and schooling. Despite his lack of education, he was helped by numerous well-known individuals, including Mir Hasan Dehlvi and Amir Khusrau. Alauddin Khilji constructed the complete city of Siri as well as a Qutabi mosque in Rameswaram. He built Jamiat Khana Mosque next to Nizam-ud-din Auliya’s dargah. He created a number of important historical structures and architectural landmarks, including the Alai Darwaja, the Alai Minar, which is unfinished and is twice as large as Qutub Minar, the Gateway to Qutub Minar, and Hauz Khas Lake.
Khilji Dynasty Religion
The Khilji dynasty’s sultans were adherents of Sunni Islam. Non-Muslims were subjected to persecution and had to pay the Jizya tax. Although Indian Muslims and Muslims who converted to Islam experienced discrimination generally, both groups came to prominence during the Khilji Dynasty.
Khilji Dynasty Decline
After Malik Kafur died in 1316, Mubarak Shah, one of Alauddin’s older sons, was appointed Sultan. He served as the Khalji dynasty’s final monarch. He immediately reversed all of his father’s reforms, which contributed to market inflation. During his brief rule, he suppressed some campaigns, including those in Gujarat, Warangal, etc.
Khusrau Khan, a slave who was converted to Islam by Alauddin’s troops after being captured during their raid on the Malwa region, was a favorite of Mubarak Shah. Mubarak Shah disliked how Khusrau was used as a catamite. Khusrau Khan assassinated Mubarak Shah in 1320 as payback for taking advantage of him. Khusrau Khan was widely despised by Delhi’s Muslim nobility during his three months as king because he was thought to have favored the members of his initial Hindu caste.
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (Ghazi Malik) led a group of soldiers to rebel. After suffering losses in the Battles of Saraswati and Lahrawat, Khusrau Khan was ousted. The Khalji family came to an end at this point in 1320, and the Tughluqs became the new family to rule the Delhi Sultanate.
Khilji Dynasty UPSC
Khilji Dynasty is an important topic for aspirants to learn for the IAS Exam. This section is a crucial part of the UPSC syllabus and comes under the section of Medieval History of India. Candidates can write down brief notes and mark the relevant points, including dates, and events, which they can utilize during revision before the examination. Candidate can visit the official website of StudyIQ UPSC online coaching for more details about civil services exam preparations.