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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 14 March 2023

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 13 March 2023

  • Growing up with lesbian or gay parents will not necessarily make a child lesbian or gay, the Supreme Court observed on Monday, as it confronted the government’s concern about the “psychological” impact same-sex marriages may have on children.
  • Chief Justice D.Y. Chandrachud referred petitions seeking legal recognition of same-sex marriages to a Constitution Bench, but took the time on Monday to soothe the government’s anxiety about how such a move would affect Indian “social ethos”.
  • The Bench listed the case for final arguments on April 18 and said the hearing would be livestreamed in public interest.

 The Hindu Editorial Today

Article 145(3):

  • Article 145(3) provides, “The minimum number of Judges who are to sit for the purpose of deciding any case involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution or for the purpose of hearing any reference under Article 143 shall be five.”
  • To date, the largest-ever Constitution Bench was that of 13 judges in the case Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala, headed by the then CJI S. M. Sikri. A ground-breaking judgment was delivered as the SC, by a thin majority of 7:6, holding that Parliament could amend any part of the Constitution so long as it did not alter or amend “the basic structure or essential features of the Constitution.”

  • Naatu Naatu, the irrepressible, fun number from the film RRR, and the documentary short The Elephant Whisperers made Oscar history for India on Monday with one Academy Award each, the two wins showcasing cinema beyond Bollywood and the growing might of the Indian non-feature segment.
  • Naatu Naatu composed by M.M. Keeravaani and penned by Chandrabose in S.S. Rajamouli’s blockbuster, is the fourth non-English song to win an Oscar in the category and the first song in a foreign language since Jai Ho in 2009 to bag the prize.
  • The Elephant Whisperers, by Kartiki Gonsalves and Guneet Monga, which explores the bond between humans and an abandoned elephant calf in Tamil Nadu’s Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, is India’s first win in the Documentary Short category.

  • India’s G-20 presidency has provided an opportunity for the country to showcase its advancements in the digital arena, particularly with regards to data infrastructures and data governance. As the world becomes increasingly digital, the G-20 has recognised the need for international cooperation and collaboration in addressing the challenges, opportunities and risks posed by the rapid growth of data and digital technologies.
  • Significant progress has been made in the use of digital technologies to provide access to bank accounts and in the promotion of digital transactions through the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) and other options.
  • The launch of India’s Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture (DEPA), a consent management tool, has generated both excitement and concern among stakeholders. On the one hand, DEPA has the potential to improve data protection and privacy for citizens by giving them greater control over the use and sharing of their personal information.
  • By allowing individuals to easily manage and control their data consents, DEPA could help to build trust in digital technologies and data governance.
  • However, there are also risks associated with DEPA, particularly in terms of security and privacy. If the consent management tool is not properly implemented or managed, there is a risk that personal information could be misused or misappropriated.

What is DEPA?

  • DEPA is a joint public-private effort for an improved data governance approach.
  • DEPA creates a digital framework that allows users to share their data on their own terms through a third-party entity, who are known as Consent Mangers (In India, Account Aggregators).
  • DEPA went live in the financial sector in 2020 under the joint leadership of the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA), Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDAI), and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

  • While some have rejected the government’s initiative to set up foreign universities in India calling it a predatory practice, others have embraced it as a quality-enhancing step.
  • Two promising numbers drive the government’s assumptions. First, as the Ministry of Education recently clarified in Parliament, the number of Indian students going abroad increased from 4.4 lakh in 2021 to 7.5 lakh in 2022. The related outward remittance spent on education in 2012-2022 was about $5.1 billion, as per the Reserve Bank of India bulletin.
  • The calculation is that India is an enticing market even if foreign universities can tap into a fraction of this outward flow.
  • The All-India Survey on Higher Education estimates that 4.13 crore students are enrolled in higher education. If the policy target is to achieve a 50% enrolment ratio by 2035 from the current 27.3%, the intake of students will almost double in 15 years. Much of this is expected to happen in private institutions, which currently accommodate only about a quarter of enrolment.
  • If foreign universities want to compete with premier Indian institutes such as the IITs, they will have to bear in mind the actual costs this involves.
  • Students travelling abroad pay more fees for better opportunities and enriching cultural experiences. Realising this, countries such as the UAE, where Indian students are the largest among international students, offer 10-year visas for exceptional students and five-year visas for others to seek work. This makes the UAE an attractive destination.
  • Setting up foreign universities will not lead to a radical reduction in outward flow, but would marginally increase local options and redistribute students amongst the elite institutions.

  • India remained the world’s largest arms importer for the five-year period between 2018 and 2022 even though its arms imports dropped by 11% between 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, according to the Swedish think tank Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
  • Russia was the largest supplier of arms to India from 2013 to 2022, but its share of total imports fell from 64% to 45% while France is the second largest supplier.
  • As per latest SIPRI data, among the top 10 arms exporters for the period 2018 to 2022, India was the biggest arms export market to three countries — Russia, France and Israel — and the second largest export market to South Korea. India was also the third largest market for South Africa, which was ranked 21 in the list of arms exporters.
  • For the same period, India remained the largest arms importer followed by Saudi Arabia. Russia accounted for 45% of India’s imports followed by France (29%) and the U.S. (11%). Also, India was the third largest arms supplier to Myanmar after Russia and China accounting for 14% of its imports.
  • “India’s tensions with Pakistan and China largely drive its demand for arms imports. With an 11% share of total global arms imports, India was the world’s biggest importer of major arms in 2018 to 2022, a position it has held for the period 1993 to 2022. It retained this position even though its arms imports dropped by 11% between 2013 to 2017 and 2018 to 2022,” according to SIPRI data.
  • Just under two thirds of Russian exports went to three states from 2018 to 2022 — India (31%), China (23%) and Egypt (9.3%). India was also the largest recipient of Russian arms from 2013 to 2017, but exports decreased by 37% between the two periods.

  • India’s retail inflation remained above the central bank’s 6% tolerance threshold for the second successive month in February at 6.44%, compared with 6.52% in January, as per the National Statistical Office.

Q) Mount Merapi, which was recently seen in the news, is located in which country?

  1. Indonesia
  2. Brazil
  3. Russia
  4. None of these

हाल ही में खबरों में रहा माउंट मेरापी किस देश में स्थित है?

  1. इंडोनेशिया
  2. ब्राजील
  3. रूस
  4. इनमें से कोई नहीं

Explanation :

Recently, Mount Merapi erupted with avalanches of searing gas clouds and lava, forcing concerned national authorities to halt tourism and mining activities.

  • Mount Merapi (Mountain of Fire) is one of the world’s most active volcanos located in Indonesia.
  • It rises to 9,551 feet and has steep slopes with dense vegetation on its lower flanks.
  • Indonesia is located on the Ring of Fire, a vast area around the Pacific Ocean.
  • It consists of over 17,000 islands and islets — and nearly 130 active volcanoes.
  • The Ring of Fire also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
  • The abundance of volcanoes and earthquakes along the Ring of Fire is caused by the amount of movement of tectonic plates in the area.

Q) With reference to the Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar, consider the following statements:

  1. It is awarded to only individuals for their invaluable contribution to the field of disaster management.
  2. It is announced every year on 23rd January on the occasion of the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

सुभाष चंद्र बोस आपदा प्रबंधन पुरस्कार के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. यह केवल व्यक्तियों को आपदा प्रबंधन के क्षेत्र में उनके अमूल्य योगदान के लिए दिया जाता है।
  2. इसकी घोषणा हर साल 23 जनवरी को नेताजी सुभाष चंद्र बोस की जयंती के अवसर पर की जाती है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Prime Minister of India recently felicitated awardees of the Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar during the 3rd Session of the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR).

  • It is an award to recognize and honour the invaluable contribution and selfless service rendered by individuals and organizations in India in the field of disaster management.
  • Eligibility :
    • Only Indian nationals and Indian institutions are eligible to apply for the award.
    • Institutions, voluntary organisations, corporate entities, academic/research institutions, response/ uniformed forces or any other institution may apply as an institution for the award.
    • The candidate for the award must have worked in the area of Disaster Management like Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Rescue, Response, Relief, Rehabilitation, Research/ Innovations or Early Warning related work in India.
  • The award is announced every year on 23rd January, the birth anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • The award carries a cash prize of Rs. 51 lakh and a certificate in the case of an institution and Rs. 5 lakh and a certificate in the case of an individual.

Q) Mhadei wildlife sanctuary, which was recently seen in the news, is located in which state?

  1. Rajasthan
  2. Goa
  3. Jharkhand
  4. None of these

हाल ही में सुर्ख़ियों में रहा महादेई वन्यजीव अभ्यारण्य किस राज्य में स्थित है?

  1. राजस्थान
  2. गोवा
  3. झारखंड
  4. इनमें से कोई नहीं

Explanation :

Recently, the Goa forest minister said the fire in the Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary was successfully doused after the Indian Navy conducted an aerial survey and the state forest department deployed guards to douse the blaze.

  • Mhadei wildlife sanctuary is located in the Northern Part of Goa, near the village of Valpoi.
  • There are a number of picturesque waterfalls within the sanctuary boundaries. The most prominent are the Vazra Sakla Falls and the Virdi Falls.
  • The cliff face near the Vazra falls is notable for being the nesting grounds of the critically endangered Long-billed vultures.
  • Flora: The sanctuary is thickly forested with moist deciduous vegetation and some evergreen species too. The sanctuary is particularly well-known for its sacred groves that protect rare and indigenous trees.
  • Fauna: Indian gaur, Barking deer, Sambar deer, Asian palm civet, small Indian civet, Wild boar, Indian hare etc.
  • The sanctuary is a huge attraction for herpetologists since it contains a large variety of snakes including all of the ‘big four’ of Indian venomous snakes which are the Indian krait, Russell’s viper, Saw-scaled viper and Spectacled cobra.

Q) Which among the following best describes ‘NASAMS’, recently seen in the news?

  1. It is an anti-submarine torpedo system.
  2. It is a Shivalik- class stealth multi-role frigate.
  3. It is an air defense system.
  4. It is a security alliance of Nordic nations.

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा हाल ही में समाचारों में देखे गए ‘NASAMS’ का सबसे अच्छा वर्णन करता है?

  1. यह एक पनडुब्बी रोधी टारपीडो प्रणाली है।
  2. यह एक शिवालिक-क्लास स्टील्थ मल्टी-रोल फ्रिगेट है।
  3. यह एक वायु रक्षा प्रणाली है।
  4. यह नॉर्डिक राष्ट्रों का एक सुरक्षा गठबंधन है।

Explanation :

  • Norway recently announced its plans to provide Ukraine with two NASAMS firing units in collaboration with the United States.

About NASAMS (Norwegian Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System):

  • It is a medium-range ground-based air defense system.
  • It is designed to engage air targets at low and medium altitudes in all weather conditions.
  • It was designed and developed jointly by Raytheon (United States) and Kongsberg Defence&Aerospace (Norway).
  • It is used by Norway, the United States, Canada, Chile, Finland, Indonesia, Netherlands, Oman, Qatar, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine.
  • It is best suited to defend important stationary assets, such as key military assets, infrastructure, or cities.
  • It has been integrated into the U.S. National Capital Region’s air defense system since 2005.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding Virtual Digital Assets (VDA):

  1. They are not defined under any Indian Laws/Acts.
  2. They can be transferred, stored, or traded electronically.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

वर्चुअल डिजिटल एसेट्स (वीडीए) के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. उन्हें किसी भी भारतीय कानून/अधिनियम के तहत परिभाषित नहीं किया गया है।
  2. उन्हें इलेक्ट्रॉनिक रूप से स्थानांतरित, संग्रहीत या व्यापार किया जा सकता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

The Finance Ministry recently brought out a notification placing all transactions involving virtual digital assets under the purview of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA).

About Virtual Digital Assets (VDA):

  • According to the Income tax act, ‘virtual digital asset’ refers to any information, code, number, or token (not being Indian currency or foreign currency) generated through cryptographic means or otherwise and can be called by whatever name.
  • It can be transferred, stored, or traded electronically.
  • The definition of VDA also specifically includes a non-fungible token, i.e., NFT, or any other token of similar nature, by whatever name is called.

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FAQs

What is ‘NASAMS’, recently seen in the news?

It is an air defense system.

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