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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 April 2023

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 Apr, 2023 | Daily Analysis_4.1

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 8 April 2023

  • India has at least 3,167 tigers, according to estimates from the latest tiger census made public on Sunday. While this is ostensibly an increase since the census of 2018, the numbers are not strictly comparable, as a key calculation to compute the maximum and minimum range of the tiger population is yet to be done.
  • There were 2,967 tigers recorded in 2018, and 2,226 in 2014. Sunday’s figures were provisional and could be revised, an official involved with the census told The Hindu.
  • The tiger population numbers were made public by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Mysuru on Sunday, at an event to mark the International Big Cat Alliance conference and the 50th anniversary of Project Tiger.
  • The tiger population has grown the most in the Shivalik hills and the Gangetic flood plains, followed by central India, the northeastern hills, the Brahmaputra flood plains, and the Sundarbans. There was a decline in the Western Ghats numbers, though “major populations” were said to be stable.
  • The Prime Minister launched the International Big Cats Alliance (IBCA). In July 2019, the Prime Minister called for an Alliance of Global Leaders to obliterate demand and firmly curb poaching and illegal wildlife trade in Asia.
  • Taking the message of the Prime Minister forward, the International Big Cats Alliance is being launched which will focus on the protection and conservation of seven major big cats of the world, viz. Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Puma, Jaguar and Cheetah, with a membership of the range of countries harbouring these species.
  • As of 2018, the state with the highest estimated tiger population in India is Madhya Pradesh, with an estimated 526 individuals. Other states with significant tiger populations include Karnataka (524 tigers), Uttarakhand (442 tigers), and Tamil Nadu (229 tigers).
  • Madhya Pradesh is home to several protected areas and wildlife reserves that serve as important habitats for tigers, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Pench National Park, and Sanjay National Park.

 The Hindu Editorial Today

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 Apr, 2023 | Daily Analysis_5.1

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 Apr, 2023 | Daily Analysis_6.1

  • The Space Age began in 1957 with the launch of satellite Sputnik 1, and in 1961, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the world’s first person in space. Neil Armstrong made history by walking on the moon in 1969.
  • Between the 1950s to 1991, a period dominated by the Cold War, 60 to 120 space launches took place annually and 93% of these were by the United States and the erstwhile Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) governments.
  • Last year, there were 180 rocket/space launches, 61 by Elon Musk’s Space X; 90% of global space launches since 2020 are by and for the private sector.
  • The first sounding rocket, a U.S. supplied Nike-Apache, was launched at Thumba (Kerala) in 1963 and in 1969, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was set up.
  • Its first major project was Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) that involved leasing a U.S. satellite in 1975-76 for educational outreach across 2,400 villages covering five million people.
  • In 2020, the global space economy was estimated at $450 billion, growing to $600 billion by 2025. The Indian space economy, estimated at $9.6 billion in 2020, is expected to be $13 billion by 2025. However, the potential is much greater with an enabling policy and regulatory environment. The Indian space industry could easily exceed $60 billion by 2030, directly creating more than two lakh jobs.
  • According to the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), there are 8,261 satellites in orbit, of which nearly 5,000 are active. Till 2010, about 60 to 100 satellites were launched annually.
  • Today, Starlink operates a constellation of over 3,500 satellites and has a million paying customers.
  • Both Starlink and OneWeb (in which Airtel has a stake) project constellations of 40,000 satellites each.
  • And Jeff Bezos of Amazon has launched Project Kuiper to bring low-latency broadband connectivity around the globe.

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 Apr, 2023 | Daily Analysis_7.1

  • In the IT (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Amendment Rules, 2023, the Union government has added a provision of a fact-check unit to identify fake or false or misleading online content related to the government.
  • Against such content identified by this unit, intermediaries, such as social media companies or net service providers, will have to take action or risk losing their “safe harbour” protections in Section 79 of the IT Act, which allows intermediaries to avoid liabilities for what third parties post on their websites. This is unacceptable and problematic.
  • Also, Section 69A of the IT Act, 2000 elucidates the procedure to issue takedown orders, which these notified amendments could bypass. They also run afoul of Shreya Singhal vs Union of India (2015), a verdict with clear guidelines for blocking content.

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 Apr, 2023 | Daily Analysis_8.1

  • For instance, AI tools can assist parliamentarians in preparing responses for legislators, enhancing research quality, obtaining information about any Bill, preparing briefs, providing information on particular House rules, legislative drafting, amendments, interventions, etc.
  • For example, in measures related to COVID-19, the central government issued over 900 notifications while State governments issued over 6,000 notifications on the subject (Data as on September 20, 2020).
  • Compared to western democratic nations, in India, parliamentarians manage constituencies with a huge population. AI can analyse citizens’ grievances and social media responses, and flag issues and priorities that need immediate attention. It can also assist parliamentarians in seeking citizen inputs for public consultation of laws and preparing a manifesto.
  • The Netherlands House of Representatives, for instance, has implemented the “Speech2Write” system which converts voice to text and also “translates” voice into written reports.
  • The good news is that India is also innovating and working towards making parliamentary activities digital such as the ‘One Nation, One Application’ and the National e-Vidhan (NeVA) portal.
  • AI can also simulate the potential effects of laws. For example, various datasets such as the Census, data on household consumption, taxpayers, beneficiaries from various schemes, and public infrastructure can be modelled. In that case, AI can uncover potential outcomes of a policy.

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 10 Apr, 2023 | Daily Analysis_9.1

  • The Indian-American statistician Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao has been awarded the 2023 International Prize in Statistics — the equivalent of the Nobel Prize for statistics. It is awarded once every two years to an individual or team “for major achievements using statistics to advance science, technology and human welfare”.
  • One of Professor Rao’s papers in 1948 offered a novel generic approach to testing hypotheses, now widely known as the “Rao score test”. This and two other tests, developed by Jerzy Neyman, E.S. Pearson and Abraham Wald, are sometimes called “the holy trinity” of this branch of statistics.

Q) Consider the following statements regarding the ‘Prasthan Exercise’, recently seen in the news:

  1. It is held every six months under the aegis of the Indian Coast Guard.
  2. It aims to integrate the efforts of all maritime stakeholders involved in offshore defence.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

हाल ही में समाचारों में देखे गए ‘प्रस्थान व्यायाम’ के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. यह भारतीय तट रक्षक के तत्वावधान में हर छह महीने में आयोजित किया जाता है।
  2. इसका उद्देश्य अपतटीय रक्षा में शामिल सभी समुद्री हितधारकों के प्रयासों को एकीकृत करना है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Indian Navy recently conducted the Prasthan exercise in the offshore development area off Mumbai.

About Prasthan Exercise:

  • The exercise is held every six months under the aegis of the Indian Navy and involves the participation of all stakeholders in the maritime domain.
  • This exercise is an important element of ensuring offshore security and aims to integrate the efforts of all maritime stakeholders involved in offshore defence.
  • The recent exercise aims to validate measures and procedures to address contingencies that may occur in oil production platforms.
  • It was conducted on the Greatdrill Chaaya platform, about 30 nm South West of Mumbai Harbour.
  • A number of ships and helicopters from the Indian Navy, Indian Air Force, Indian Coast Guard, ONGC and Directorate General of Shipping were deployed for the exercise.
  • Personnel from Maharashtra Police, Customs, Fisheries Department, Mumbai Port Authority, JN Port Authority and other concerned state and central civilian agencies also participated in it.

Q) Idu Mishmis is a major tribal group of which one of the following states?

  1. Himachal Pradesh
  2. Rajasthan
  3. Odisha
  4. Arunachal Pradesh

इदु मिश्मिस निम्नलिखित में से किस राज्य का एक प्रमुख जनजातीय समूह है?

  1. हिमाचल प्रदेश
  2. राजस्थान
  3. ओडिशा
  4. अरुणाचल प्रदेश

About Idu Mishmi Tribe:

  • Who are they? The Idu Mishmi is a sub-tribe of the larger Mishmi group (the other two Mishmi groups are Digaru and Miju) in Arunachal Pradesh and neighbouring Tibet.
  • They primarily live in Mishmi Hills, bordering Tibet in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Their ancestral homelands are spread over the districts of Dibang Valley and Lower Dibang Valley, as well as parts of Upper Siang and Lohit.
  • They are known for their weaving and craftsmanship skills.
  • They can be distinctively identified by their typical hairstyle, distinctive customs and artistic pattern embedded on their clothes.
  • Population: The tribe is estimated to comprise around 12,000 people (as per the census 2011).
  • Language: Their language, called ‘Idu Mishmi’, is considered endangered by UNESCO.

Q) National Mission for Cultural Mapping, which was recently seen in the news, is an initiative of which union ministry?

  1. Ministry of Culture
  2. Ministry of Earth Science
  3. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology
  4. None of these

राष्ट्रीय सांस्कृतिक मानचित्रण मिशन, जो हाल ही में खबरों में था, किस केंद्रीय मंत्रालय की पहल है?

  1. संस्कृति मंत्रालय
  2. पृथ्वी विज्ञान मंत्रालय
  3. इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स और सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी मंत्रालय
  4. इनमें से कोई नहीं

Explanation :

The detailed dossiers of the villages covered under the Mera Gaon Meri Dharohar programme of the National Mission for Cultural Mapping will be made available on a web portal.

  • It was launched in 2017 by the Union Ministry of Culture.
  • Aim: To develop a comprehensive database of art forms, artists and other resources across the country.
  • The government has identified and documented distinctive features of more than one lakh villages across the country.
  • In this cultural asset mapping, villages have been broadly divided into seven-eight categories based on mythological ecological, developmental and scholastic importance.
  • The Culture Ministry had approved a budget of ₹469 crores for the mission in 2017 for a period of three years.
  • Detailed field surveys were carried out by joint teams of the Culture Ministry and the Common Services Centres (CSC), under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.

Q) With reference to the United Nations Statistical Commission, consider the following statements:

  1. It is the highest decision-making body responsible for setting statistical standards.
  2. The term of office of members is four years.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

संयुक्त राष्ट्र सांख्यिकी आयोग के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. यह सर्वोच्च निर्णय लेने वाली संस्था है जो सांख्यिकीय मानकों को स्थापित करने के लिए जिम्मेदार है।
  2. सदस्यों का कार्यकाल चार वर्ष का होता है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Recently, India has been elected to the highest statistical body of the United Nations for a four-year term beginning January 1, 2024.

  • It was established in 1947(HQ: New York) and is the highest body of the global statistical system.
  • It brings together the Chief Statisticians from member states from around the world.
  • Functions:
    • It is the highest decision-making body for international statistical activities, responsible for setting statistical standards and the development of concepts and methods, including their implementation at the national and international levels.
    • The Statistical Commission oversees the work of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), and it is a Functional Commission of the UN Economic and Social Council.
  • Membership: The Commission consists of 24 member countries of the United Nations elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council based on an equitable geographical distribution according to the following pattern:
  • The term of office of members is four years.
  • India was a member of the Statistical Commission last in 2004 and the country is returning to the UN agency after a gap of two decades.

Q) With reference to the International Seabed Authority, consider the following statements:

  1. It is an international organization which regulates the exploration of poly-metallic nodules.
  2. Its headquarter is located in London.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

इंटरनेशनल सीबेड अथॉरिटी के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. यह एक अंतरराष्ट्रीय संगठन है जो पॉली-मेटैलिक नोड्यूल्स की खोज को नियंत्रित करता है।
  2. इसका मुख्यालय लंदन में स्थित है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Recently, the International Seabed Authority has decided that it will start taking permit applications from companies that want to mine the ocean floor.

  • It is an autonomous international organization established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
  • Mandate: It has the mandate to ensure the effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects that may arise from deep-seabed-related activities.
  • It has its headquarters in Kingston, Jamaica.
  • Its primary function is to regulate the exploration of poly-metallic nodules.
  • Polymetallic nodules are rounded accretions of manganese and iron hydroxides that cover vast areas of the seafloor.
  • These are most abundant on abyssal plains at water depths of 4000-6500 metres.
  • They are mainly found in the north-central Pacific Ocean, the southeastern Pacific Ocean, and the northern Indian Ocean.

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