As the fourth family of the Delhi Sultanate, the Sayyid dynasty succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty. They ruled the nation for 37 years, from 1414 to 1451. Khizir Khan, the governor of Multan and Timur’s Indian representative, established them. The Sayyid Dynasty was founded by a dynasty that identified itself as a Sayyid or a Mohammedan ancestor. This dynasty came to power amid intense unrest in Delhi and the surrounding areas. In this article, we will discuss the Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451 AD) which will is important topic of History Subject of UPSC Syllabus. The UPSC Mock Test can help candidates prepare for the exam with more precision.
Sayyid Dynasty History
Up until the Lodhi dynasty took over, the Sayyid dynasty reigned over the Sultanate in lieu of the Tughlaq dynasty. Khizr Khan, who held the position of Multan’s governor under Firuz Shah Tughlaq, established this dynasty.
The Sayyid dynasty began to fall with the passing of Mubarak Shah, the second ruler of the family. Bahlol Lodhi eventually succeeded the weak kings Muhammad Shah and Alauddin Alam Shah. Through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law Ali, the Sayyid family claimed descent from the prophet Muhammad. This assertion is backed by Yahya Sirhindi’s Tarikh-i-Mubarak shahi.
Sayyid Dynasty Important Rulers
Khizr Khan- Sayyid Dynasty Founder (1414 – 1421 AD)
The Sayyid dynasty was established by Sayyid Khizr Khan, who governed northern India from 1414 to 1421, shortly after Timur’s invasion and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty. When he assumed the throne, Delhi was in a terrible condition. The whole realm was in a state of anarchy, confusion, and disorder. In a similar manner, Hindu doab lords had proclaimed their freedom and ceased paying taxes to the Sultan.
In the kingdom, he established law and order by putting down uprisings. Khizr Khan had some success and expanded the boundaries of his realm. Khizr Khan’s troops captured Gujarat, Bayana, and Gwalior. After that, Sirhind’s king agreed to give an annual tribute to Khizr Khan as his army advanced on Sirhind. In the interim, he fell sick, and on May 20, 1421, despite all attempts to save him, he passed away. After his death, his son Mubarak Khan replaced him.
Also Read: Delhi Sultanate
Mubarak Shah (1421-1434 AD)
The second king of the Sayyid Dynasty was Mubarak Shah. He succeeded his father, Khizr Khan, to the crown. Mubarak Shah oversaw expeditions throughout the realm to crush uprisings and put an end to chaos. He was effective in suppressing the Khokhars of Punjab, but only in Bhatinda and the Doab. Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah was the moniker he gave himself, and he also had coins made in his honour.
Jasrat Khokhar, a local Muslim chieftain from Punjab who was defeated and forced to flee Delhi and cede a sizable portion of his territory to the Delhi Sultan, posed the greatest danger to his authority. On the Yamuna River’s banks, he constructed Mubarakabad, a new metropolis, during his rule. In 1434 AD, Mubarak Shah finally gave in to the plotters and was murdered. Since Mubarak Shah had no sons to replace him, Mohammed Shah, his nephew, became the ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty.
Muhammad Shah (1434–1445 AD)
Mubarak Shah adopted his nephew Mohammed Shah because he lacked sons to replace him. After Mubarak died in 1434, Muhammad-bin-Farid was appointed as Muhammad Shah by Wazir Sarvar-ul-Mulk. Sarvar-ul-Mulk later hatched a plot to assassinate the Sultan, but his scheme failed because the other group stayed devoted to and supported the Sultan. The Sultan’s effort to kill him was thus unsuccessful, and his men executed Wazir Sarvar-ul-Muld.
Mahmood Shah, the Sultan of Malwa, set up camp close to Delhi in anticipation of an attack. Muhammad Shah called Sirhind’s commander, Bahlul Lodhi, when he discovered he couldn’t handle the situation. The soldiers of Sultan Mahmood Shah were attacked by Bahlul Lodhi’s forces. After Mahmood encountered difficulty, he and Muhammad Shah ultimately agreed to a contract. Before his death in 1445, Muhammad Shah designated his son Ala-ud-din Alam Shah as his heir.
Ala-ud-din Shah (1445-1451 AD)
The fourth and last king of the Sayyid Dynasty was Ala-ud-din-Alam Shah. The name Alam Shah applied to him, and he ruled from 1445 to 1451. Having inherited the Dynasty, he adopted the title of Alam Shah despite being born Ala-ud-Din. Alam Shah was a poor executive and ruler, much like Muhammad Shah. He loved Baduan as a tourist and lived there all his life.
The governor of Lahore and Sarhind, Bahlol Lodhi, was able to collect power and seize control of Delhi because the Central Authority was weak and lacked control. Bahlul Lodhi removed Alam Shah from the crown in 1451. Alam Shah reigned over Baduan until his death in 1478, ending the Sayyid dynasty.
Sayyid Dynasty Last Ruler
The fourth and final the ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty was Ala-ud-din-Alam Shah.
Sayyid Dynasty Administration
The Sayyid Dynasty had a highly controlled government and the Sultan had unrestricted power. The Sayyid Dynasty had a well-organized administrative process that was carried out by various ministers who were each given a particular task to complete. Sultan held unrestricted authority in all spheres of state activity and served as the head of state. Naib held a status similar to that of the Sultan, while Wazir served as state’s prime minister and was in charge of the finances.
Decisions were based on the Shariah. Cases involving non-Muslims were resolved in accordance with those religions’ own laws. Greater power was held by governors in command of provinces that were bigger or more significant. Local government was mainly a traditional system, vague and undefined. The entire kingdom was divided into various sizeable and diminutive parcels of land known as Iqtas.
Sayyid Dynasty Economy
Trade and the business did not flourish under the Sayyids’ rule. Corn taxes were imposed by Sayyids and ultimately removed by Lodhi. Supply lines in the Deccan region, which served as a maritime trade route, broke down in the 14th and 15th centuries CE as a result of a decrease in trading routes. The empire’s access to supplies from the coast was cut off as a consequence of the collapse. By the period of Lodhi, the governmental system had already begun to fall apart during the Sayyid era.The Sultanate eventually fell apart as a result of its failing economy.
Sayyid Dynasty Decline
The Sultanate was troubled by internal uprisings in Jaunpur, Etawah, Gwalior, Doab, and other regions during Mubarak Shah and Muhammad Shah. After his ascendancy, Muhammad Shah also severed ties with regional kingdoms and claimed no relationship with them. As a consequence, numerous uprisings spread throughout the northwest, northeast, and middle provinces. The Sayyid dynasty’s rulers were preoccupied with putting these uprisings down, so they were unable to focus on administration and the welfare of the populace.
The Sayyid dynasty was overthrown as a result of the Khokhar uprising. Court plots and intrigues served to further exacerbate the Sayyids’ decline. Muhammad Shah and Alauddin Alam Shah, two succeeding kings, were feeble leaders. The Afghans’ power increased significantly during Alam Shah’s rule, and Bahlul Lodhi eventually ruled over the entire Punjab. When Bahlul Lodhi invaded Delhi, the Sayyid wazir, Hamid Khan, allied with Lodhi and assisted in overthrowing the Sayyid family by installing him as ruler of the Delhi Sultanate.
Sayyid Dynasty UPSC
The Sayyid dynasty ruled for 37 years between 1414 and 1450. Khizr Khan founded the dynasty, which was led forward by Mubarak Shah. Emperors Muhammad Shah and Alam Shah were weak and unable to control the invaders’ onslaught; the dynasty began to collapse once they ascended the throne. In 1451, Bahlul Lodhi removed Ala-ud-din Alam Shah from the throne, establishing the Lodhi Dynasty. Students can read all the details related to UPSC visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC online Coaching.