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Line of Control (LoC), Background, How LoC was formed?

Line of Control

India and its neighbors, including China and Pakistan, have occasionally engaged in border-related disputes. The advent of wars has been significantly influenced by these border disputes. The LOC and LAC are the two most well-known borders in this regard. LOC stands for Line of Control, whereas LAC is for Line of Actual Control. The LAC is a border between India and China that is viewed as a mere concept by both countries as they interpret the line on their own terms and disagree with one another, in contrast to the LOC, a demarcated, military-marked frontier separating portions of India and Pakistan-occupied Jammu and Kashmir.

Read More: Kargil Vijay Diwas

What is Line of Control (LoC)?

The Line of Control (LoC) is a de facto border that divides the portions of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that are militarily controlled by India and Pakistan. It is not a legally recognized international border. The Simla Agreement, which put an end to the Indo-Pakistani War in 1971, included its establishment. The cease-fire line was renamed the “Line of Control” by both nations, who also promised to uphold it regardless of their respective positions. The line is essentially the same as the original 1949 cease-fire line, with a few minor modifications.

Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh are the two union territories that make up the portion of the erstwhile princely state that is under Indian administration. Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan are the two regions under Pakistani administration. The Siachen Glacier, which became a cause of dispute in 1984, is located beyond NJ9842, the northernmost point of the Line of Control. The border between Pakistan’s Punjab and the Jammu province is to the south of the Line of Control and has an ambiguous status; Pakistan refers to it as a “working border,” while India refers to it as a “international boundary” (Sangam, Chenab River, Akhnoor).

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Background of Line of Control

After the partition of India, present-day India and Pakistan contested the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir – India because of the ruler’s accession to the country, and Pakistan by virtue of the state’s Muslim-majority population. Before a cease-fire was negotiated through UN mediation, the First Kashmir War of 1947 raged for more than a year. A cease-fire line was agreed upon by all parties.

Only minimal changes were made to the original ceasefire line after the 1965 Kashmir War and the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War (which saw Bangladesh gain independence). Both nations agreed to turn the ceasefire line into a “Line of Control” (LoC) and observe it as a de facto border that armed conflict should not cross in the succeeding Simla Agreement in 1972.

The agreement declared that “neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations”. Investigation of ceasefire violations (CFVs) was the responsibility of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), although this responsibility waned after 1971. The Indian subcontinent, and the Kashmir Line of Control in particular, were mentioned as some of the most hazardous regions in the world by US President Bill Clinton in 2000.

Also Read: India-Pakistan Border Disputes

Current Situation at LOC

According to a recent joint declaration, India and Pakistan have pledged to fully adhere to all agreements on a ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) and other sectors. After a phone call between the DGMOs (Director General of Military Operations) from the two armies via the hotline, the Defence Ministry announced this.

According to the ministry statement, the parties have committed to strictly adhere to all agreements, understandings, and cease-fires with effect from midnight on February 24–25, 2021, along the LOC and in all other sectors. The two DGMOs also committed to addressing each other’s primary issues and concerns, which have a propensity to disrupt peace and spark conflict, for the purpose of building mutually beneficial & durable peace along the borders.

The joint statement released by the forces of India and Pakistan on their agreement to observe the ceasefire at the Line of Control in Kashmir and engage via the established system is encouraging to the United Nations’ current secretary general, Antonio Guterres. Additionally, he thinks that this constructive action would open the door to more conversation.

Comparison Between LOC and LAC

Check the comparison between the Line of Control (LOC) and Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the table given below:

Comparison Between LOC and LAC

Line of Control (LOC) Line of Actual Control (LAC)
Location: Three regions of Kashmir (i.e. Azad Kashmir, Gilgit & Baltistan) occupied by Pakistan and two-thirds, Jammu, Ladakh, and the Kashmir Valley, which is administered by India. (although the whole Kashmir is an integral part of India) Location: LAC is scattered in three areas of northern Indian states: eastern (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh), middle (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) and western (Ladakh, Kashmir).
LOC is clearly demarcated by the militaries and a lot of activities (i.e. face to face confrontation, firings, etc) take place. The Indian and Pakistan army is present here. There are big empty regions and nearly 50 to 100 km distance is maintained between Indian & Chinese armies.
Length of LOC is 776 kilometre (unofficial) Length of LAC is 4,057 kilometre (unofficial)
It is the boarder between India & Pakistan It is the boarder Between India & China

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Line of Control FAQs

What is the meaning of Line of Control?

The full form of LOC is Line of Control. The LOC is the military command line between the parts of the former princely state of Jammu & Kashmir administered by India & Pakistan.

Who established Line of Control?

Legally, the LoC is a ceasefire line between India and Pakistan and is not an international boundary. Under international law, it is defined and protected by a bilateral treaty, the 1972 Simla Agreement.

What is LAC and LOC?

The two most famous borders in this regard are the LOC and LAC. While LAC stands for Line of Actual Control, LOC stands for Line of Control.

Where is LOC in India?

The Line of Control (LOC) is the line that marks where the region of Kashmir is divided.

When was Line of Control formed?

It was established as part of the Shimla Accords at the end of the Indo-Pakistani War in 1971.


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