Home Rule Movement
Home Rule Movement is a significant turning point in India’s history of the liberation fight. Between 1916 and 1918, the movement grew across the nation, founding two home rule leagues in Poona and Madras. These Home Rule Leagues symbolized the beginning of a combative political movement. The movement, led by Annie Basant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, defined the fight for independence.
The Home Rule movement in India served as a catalyst for more independence movements. The Home Rule Movement UPSC subject, the need for the movement, its genesis, purpose, importance, and causes for the movement’s demise are covered below.
Home Rule Movement History
Indians expected more with the Government of India Act of 1909, but they got less. When the Congress Party broke apart in 1907 and fiery leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak was imprisoned from 1908 to 1914, the national movement slowed down. The national movement, however, gained momentum again with Tilak’s release and the arrival of Annie Besant.
Irish socialist Annie Besant was an author, speaker, and supporter for Indian and Irish independence. She landed in India in 1893. On whether or not to support Britain in the conflict, Indian authorities were divided. After leaving Mandalay for exile, Tilak came to understand the need for a revival of the nationalist struggle in India.
He also recognized the Congress Party’s growing relevance in India’s political landscape. His initial goal was to rejoin the party as a result. At the December 1915 Congress session, the extremists were permitted to re-join the party thanks to Annie Besant’s influence. Besant had also recognized the importance of Congress’s acceptance and the radicals’ active engagement in the national battle.
On the other hand, Besant and Tilak were unsuccessful in getting Congress to support their proposal to create home rule leagues. Besant convinced the Congress to support the creation of regional organizations and educational propaganda. It was also determined that she would be permitted to establish her own home rule league if these conditions were not satisfied by September 1916.
As a result, she established her Home Rule League in September 1916. Tilak, on the other hand, had founded his league in April 1916 and was not constrained by any such clause.
|Indian National Movement From 1905-1918|
|Indian National Movement
||First World War|
|Partition of Bengal||Swadeshi Movement|
|Muslim League||Morley-Minto Reforms 1909 (Indian Council Act 1909)|
|Ghadar Movement||Komagata Maru Incident|
|Lucknow Pact||Home Rule Movement|
Home Rule Movement Objectives
- The goal was for India to have its own government.
- The Home Rule Movement encourages political discourse and education to spark self-government agitation.
- The goal of the Home Rule Movement was to give Indians the courage to speak out against government repression.
- The Home Rule Movement calls on the British government to give Indians more political clout.
- The Home Rule Movement reactivates Indian politics while upholding Congress Party ideals.
Home Rule Movement Need
The National Congress Party’s split in 1907 was the only factor that indicated the need for the Home Rule movement in India, and this is why the Indian freedom struggle lost steam in the early 20th century. Extremists and Moderates emerged as a result of divisions inside the National Congress party, which produced a chaotic climate.
Indian hopefuls are unhappy with the Government of India Act of 1909. Six years of Lokmanya Tilak’s detention – Tilak was imprisoned for six years after the INC broke apart because of his harsh criticism of the British Government’s disruptive behavior in his publication Kesari. The freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak remarked that there was significant discord among Congressmen while he was serving his sentence from 1908 to 1914, and that the Surat Split’s effects were still being felt.
He made the decision to seize control of the situation and launch a national movement (the Home Rule Movement) in opposition to the British. He initially considered going back to the Indian National Congress and merging the Extremists and Moderates to get rid of the disagreements. The Surat Split had altered the makeup of Congress at the time, and it was crucial to set aside divisions and work cooperatively.
Tilak started his efforts to spark a revolutionary shift by establishing a Home rule league in Maharashtra, Karnataka, and the central provinces in April 1916, however, as a result of the urgent necessity for self-governance. Later that year, Annie Besant founded her Home Rule movement.
Home Rule Movement Significance
To establish a people-run government was the primary goal of the home rule movement. The concept of self-governance was taught to large numbers of Indians, which sowed the seeds for quickening the Indian struggle and bridging the gap between Indians. Only nonviolent protest tactics were accepted, and people were made aware of this through media and rallies.
India could hear the thunder of political activism, which made it easier for the fundamentalists to retake Congress. As a result, Moderates, Extremists, and the Muslim League came together, which was extremely beneficial. The home rule movement took off like wildfire, which prompted attempts by the British government to:
- Implementing the 1910 Indian Press Act.
- The publication of a newspaper in 1908;
- Annie Besant’s detention between June and September 1917.
However, the campaign eventually prompted Lord Montagu to publish the August Declaration, which declared that Indians would be given a voice in the country’s governance and the creation of a self-governing institution. Additionally, the Home Rule movement would no longer be labeled as a radical movement as a result.
Home Rule Movement Failure & Decline
After Lokmanya Tilak left to England to fight a libel action against Valentine Chirol and Annie Besant was unable to show that she had significant leadership qualities, the home rule movement was put on hold. The Home Rule movement was not universally welcomed; there were significant protests from the Muslim, Anglo-Indian, and Non-Brahmin populations.
This movement ultimately failed because the Indian people connected more strongly with the concepts of satyagraha, nonviolence, and Gandhian philosophy. Last but not least, not all strata and groups in Indian society were made aware of the movement.
In 1920, under Mahatma Gandhi’s presidency, the Indian National Congress brought the Home Rule Movement together. The Movement was motivated by a desire for greater political representation for Indians. It crumbled, although greatly aiding India’s cause for independence. Positive developments were nonetheless brought about by the home rule movement, even though they were altered, such as the signing of the Lucknow Pact between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League to uphold the unity of the Hindu and Muslim Brotherhood.
Home Rule Movement UPSC
Tilak and Besant agreed that the movement needed the backing of a moderately controlled Congress in addition to the Extremists’ complete collaboration. After Congress’ failure to broker a compromise between moderates and extremists in 1914, Tilak and Besant made the decision to resume political activities on their own.
Both leagues had a total membership of about 40,000 at the height of their operations in 1917. When Mahatma Gandhi was elected as its President in 1920, the All India Home League came to an end. A year later, it amalgamated with the Indian National Congress.
The Home Rule Movement by Annie Basant and Tilak served as a catalyst for the independence movement and stoked the public’s desire for independence. Home Rule Movement UPSC is a crucial subject, and both the UPSC Prelims and Mains exams have included questions on it.