Governor General of India
Governor General of India: The main categories used to categories British colonies were called presidencies. There were three presidents: Bengal, Madras, and Bombay. There was a governor for each person. The head of the government was known as the Governor-General. Warren Hastings, the first governor general, made a lot of administrative changes, primarily in the justice sector.
The Company’s dominion was ended with the Indian Rebellion of 1857, but British India and the princely states were placed under the direct control of the British Crown. In 1858, the Government of India Act established the position of Secretary of State for India to manage the country’s affairs, which were guided by a newly formed Council of India with 15 members (based in London). The Executive Council of India or Council of Governor-General of India is the official name of the present Council of Four. The Council of India was later abolished by the Government of India Act of 1935.
After the Government of India Act of 1858 was passed, the viceroy became the term for the governor-general who served as the Crown’s representative. The term “Viceroy” was often used in everyday discourse, but it had no official meaning and was never approved by Parliament. Although none of the Warrants appointing Lord Canning’s successors referred to them as “Viceroys,” the title, which was frequently used in Warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the Sovereign’s representative. The Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as “first Viceroy and Governor-General”. On the suggestion of the Secretary of State for India, the British Crown continued to invest the Government of India in the appointments of the Governor-General of India. The only representative of the Crown remained the Governor-General. The role of Governor-General was kept in both the new dominions of India and Pakistan as a ceremonial one until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively.
Read about: Viceroy of India
List of Governor General of India
Here’s the complete List of Governor General of India:
|Year||Governors-General of India||Major Reforms|
|1828-1835||Lord William Bentinck||Kolkata Medical College and Hospital India’s first governor general (Charter Act of 1833 made Governor-General of Bengal as Governor-General of India.)
He campaigned to end Sati.
He also supported infanticide, child sacrifice, and the suppression of the Thugee.
He contributed to the 1835 English Education Act.
|1835-1836||Lord Charles Metcalfe||He was employed by Liberator of the Indian Press, which was committed to an unfettered press.|
|1836-1842||Lord Auckland||He devoted his life to enhancing the native educational system and developing India’s economic sector.|
|1842-1844||Lord Ellenborough||Uring his tenure Sindh was annexed|
|1844-1848||Lord Hardinge I||First Anglo Sikh War (1845-46) was took placed during his tenure.|
|Lord Dalhousie (Governors-General of India)||‘Doctrine of Lapse’ was presented
The Good Doctrine
First railway line between Bombay and Thane under the Charles Wood Dispatch Post Office Act of 1854
Roorkee’s engineering school was founded after the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
leading telegraph wire
public works department’s establishment
Pensions and titles are eliminated.
Competition for the Indian Civil Services Widow Remarriage Act has begun.
|1856-1857||Lord Canning||In 1857, three universities were founded in Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay.
The Revolt of 1857 occurred.
Note: After the 1857 Revolt, Canning was appointed the first Viceroy of India/British India and the Governor-General of India was appointed Viceroy of British India.
Read about: High Court of India
First Governor General of India
Following India’s independence in 1947, the Governor-General of India served as both the British monarch’s representative in India and the head of state of India. In 1773, the Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William position was created. He was directly in charge of only Fort William, although he was in charge of other East India Company officers in India. The official received total authority over the entirety of India in 1833, earning him the title of “governor-general of India.”
English statesman Warren Hastings led the Supreme Council of Bengal from 1772 until 1785, making him the first de facto Governor-General of Bengal. He also served as the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William of Bengal. Together with Robert Clive, he is credited with laying the groundwork for the British Empire in India. He was an energetic reformer and organizer. From 1779 through 1784, he commanded the East India Company’s men while they fought a combination of native peoples and the French. In the end, the well-prepared British side won, and France’s influence in India decreased. After a protracted trial, he was found not guilty in 1795 after being impeached and charged with corruption in 1787. He was appointed to the Privy Council in 1814.
William Bentinck served as the first Governor-General of India after the 1833 Charter Act changed the title of Governor-General of Bengal to “Governor-General of India.”
Read about: List of RBI Governors of India
Last Governor General of India
Rajagopalachariwas the last Governor-general of India from 1948 to 1950. An Indian statesman and activist, he became the only Indian and last Governor-general after India gained Independence. Dr.Rajendra Prasad succeeded him as the first President of India. He also served as a leader of the Indian National Congress and Premier of Madras Presidency.
He founded the Swatantra party in 1959 in an effort to spread his liberal views. He participated in the Vaikom Satyagraha, the Dandi March, the Quit India movement, and the Non-Cooperation movement. He was one of the first people to receive the Bharat Ratna, the nation’s highest civilian honor. He put out the C.T. formula to break the deadlock between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress. He suggested giving the Muslim League control of the districts with a Muslim majority. It was unsuccessful, nevertheless, due to opposition from inside the Congress party. He participated in Indian temple entry movements and advocated for the advancement of Dalits.
Governor General of India UPSC
- In 1833, William Bentinck was appointed as India’s first governor general. The first governor general of Bengal was Warren Hastings.
- The first woman to hold the office of governor of an Indian state was Sarojini Naidu.
Read about: List of Bharat Ratna Awards
Governor General of India FAQs
Q) Who is the 1st Governor-General of India?
Ans. William Bentinck became the first governor general of India in 1833. Warren Hastings was the first governor general of Bengal.
Q) Who was India’s last Governor-General?
Ans. Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India. His tenure lasted between 1947 and 1948.
Q) Who is first and last Governor-General of India?
Ans. The correct answer is Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. He was the first and last Indian Governor-General of India after Independence. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was popularly known as Rajaji.
Q) Who is first lady governor of India?
Ans. The first woman to hold the office of governor of an Indian state was Sarojini Naidu. From 15 August 1947 to 2 March 1949, she served as the governor of Uttar Pradesh. Her daughter, Padmaja Naidu, has been the governor of West Bengal for for 11 years, making her the longest-serving female governor.
Q) Who was first governor of free India?
Ans. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was the first Indian Governor-General of independent India.
Q) Who was the best Viceroy of India?
Ans. Between 1880 and 1884, Lord Ripon served as a viceroy in India under British authority. He is regarded as the most liberal viceroy and is referred to as the “Good Viceroy of India.” He started a number of reform initiatives as soon as he assumed office on June 8, 1880.
Major Incidents in Indian History
- Quit India Movement
- Chauri Chaura Incident
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
- Green Revolution in India
- Non-Cooperation Movement
Famous Personalities Biography
Satyendra Nath Bose
Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Subhash Chandra Bose