Dudhwa National Park
The Dudhwa National Park, also known as the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, is located in the districts of Lakhimpur and Kheri in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is close to the Nepali border and joins two of the region’s most incredible wildlife sanctuaries, Kishanpur and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuaries, to represent the excellent natural forests and lush Terai region. The UPSC Syllabus includes Dudhwa National Park and all national parks as a significant topic of Environment subject. The UPSC Mock Test can help candidates prepare for the exam with more precision.
Dudhwa National Park History
The Dudhwa jungle experienced significant encroachment during the post-Independence period. The forest was consequently turned into agricultural territory. Additionally, due to its position on the Indo-Nepal border, the likelihood of poaching, hunting, and trading wild animals grew significantly. These traders sell their wares in Nepal, which is a popular tourist destination and provides them with a sizable market.
It was the ideal location for hunters to make money, but it was “Billy” Arjan Singh’s tireless efforts that allowed this park to flourish. The great conservationist came up with the idea to turn this land into a wildlife sanctuary in 1965, and as a result, he won the praise of many wildlife enthusiasts and conservationists around the globe.
Arjan Singh asked Indira Gandhi, the then-prime minister, to designate the woodland as a national park in 1977. Seven rhinos were moved to Dudhwa in 1984–1985 from Assam and Nepal in order to restore a rhino community that once existed there. It was designated a Tiger Reserve four years later as part of Project Tiger, and today it serves as a significant tiger refuge in India.
Also Read: Manas National Park
Dudhwa National Park Features
The Uttar Pradesh regions of Lakhimpur-Kheri and Shahajahanpur contain the Kishanpur Sanctuary. The region, which covers an area of 811 sq km and attracts nature lovers with its marshes, grasslands, and dense forests, is truly intended for huge populations of tigers and swamp deer. A sizable alluvial tract along the Mohana and Suheli tributaries, dotted with numerous rivulets, lakes, and pools, makes up the park’s area.
A flamboyant growth of forests and a variety of fauna are supported by the wealthy and incredibly fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. The park is a genuine undiscovered paradise for nature lovers, wildlife enthusiasts, and bird watchers and has some of the finest “Sal” tree forests in the world, among other types of flora.
Dudhwa draws tourists with its two main attractions, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and Dudhwa National Park, which are separated by 15 km of agricultural territory. The uncommercialized atmosphere of this park, in contrast to other famous parks in India like Corbett, Kaziranga, Bandhavgarh, etc., makes it an ideal habitat for wild animals to find nature’s peace and comfort in a more organic manner.
Dudhwa National Park Flora and Fauna
In Dudhwa National Park, the two principal waterways, Mohana in the north and Suheli in the south serve as important water sources. The connection between Dudhwa and the Basanta and Laljhari woods in Nepal is precarious. Large expanses of Sal forests, tall grasslands, expansive wetlands, and seasonal waterways are present throughout Dudhwa. The Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) population in the Park, which is confined to a fenced enclosure in the Suheli flood plains, is renowned for its small size.
The tiger, leopard, fishing cat, jungle cat, leopard cat, sloth bear, and big Indian civet are some of the main carnivores found in DNP. Elephants, Chital, Sambar, Hog Deer, Barking Deer, Barasingha, Nilgai, and Wild Pigs are among the reserve’s significant animals. There are plenty of barasingha, Bengal floricans, and hispid hares in this area.
Also Read: Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Dudhwa National Park Wildlife
With its 811 sq km of marshes, grasslands, and thick woodlands, Dudhwa is the perfect and protected home to over 38 species of mammals, 16 species of reptiles, and numerous bird species.
Tiger, rhinoceros, elephant, sambar, hog deer, cheetal, kakar, wild pig, rhesus monkey, langur, sloth bear, blue bull, porcupine, otter, turtles, python, monitor lizard, mugger, and gharial are just a few examples of the animals that can be found there.
Over 450 species of the nearly 1300 bird species present on the Indian subcontinent can be seen in Dudhwa Reserve. A few of these are the Hornbill, Red Jungle Fowl, Pea Fowl, Fishing Eagle, Serpent Eagle, Osprey, Paradise Flycatcher, Woodpeckers, Shama, Indian Pitta, Orioles, Emerald Dove, etc. The reserve is a popular destination for bird watchers during the winter because of the extensive and diverse water bodies that draw in a wide variety of migratory birds.
Dudhwa National Park Declared Tiger Reserve
Due to its proximity to the boundary, Dudhwa National Park has long been a hub of human poaching. A significant threat in this region was also presented by the illegal trade in native wild animals and their skins. The park is in its present condition because of Billy Arjan Singh’s sole efforts. He was a well-known conservationist in India who suggested in 1965 that the area be turned into a wildlife refuge.
In July 1976, Arjan Singh acquired Tara, a tiger juvenile, from the Twycross Zoo in the United Kingdom. In Dudhwa National Park, he reared her by hand before releasing her back into the wild. In 1977, he asked then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to designate the forest as a national park. In 1984–1985, the park got 7 rhinos from Assam and Nepal to help rebuild its 150–year–old rhino population. The park was named a Tiger Reserve by Project Tiger in 1988.
Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Essential Facts
The main, buffer, and corridor regions of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve are separated. Its central region is comprised of the Dudhwa National Park and the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary. They continue to be divided by 15 km of farmland. The passageway is formed by the connections between the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Dudhwa National Park, and Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary.
The South Kheri, North Kheri, and Shahjahanpur woods are a part of the buffer. The Terai environment is represented by Dudhwa Tiger Reserve. During the years 1984–1985, seven rhinos were moved from Assam and Nepal to this tiger sanctuary. The Dudhwa Reserve’s female weavers benefit from using technology with their looms. Dudhwa National Park is home to about half of the world’s barasinghas. More than 450 species of the nearly 1350 bird species discovered in India can be seen in this tiger reserve.
Dudhwa National Park UPSC
Due to the movement of wild animals between the protected regions, the connections between Dudhwa, Katerniaghat, and Kishanpur are significant. It is necessary to reforest the Dudhwa-Katerniaghat connection along the Mohana River. For the migration of elephants and other wild animals out of Nepal, the connection between Dudhwa and Laljhari is essential. The Lagga-Bagga woodland in Pilibhit and the Shuklaphanta Sanctuary in Nepal are connected to the Kishanpur Sanctuary. It is a major tributary of the Brahmaputra River. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.