Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022
Q) Recently seen in news, the ‘Asia-Pacific Employment and Social Outlook 2022’ was released by which one of the following organizations?
- World Bank
- World Economic Forum
- Asian Development Bank
- International Labour Organization
- Option (4) is correct: International Labour Organisation (ILO) recently released two reports that gave an indication of the global employment scenario post-pandemic. Asia-Pacific Employment and Social Outlook 2022: Rethinking sectoral strategies for a human-centred future of work. It stated that the Asia-Pacific region lost about 22 million jobs in 2022. It noted that decrease in wages is placing millions of workers in a dire situation. Income inequality and poverty will rise if the purchasing power of the lowest paid is not maintained.
- Global Wage Report 2022-2023: The Impact of inflation and COVID-19 on wages and purchasing power. It discusses the twin crises, inflation and economic slowdown, which created a “striking fall” in real monthly wages around the globe. It blames the war in Ukraine and the global energy crisis for this situation. International Labour Organisation (ILO) is one of the United Nations agencies that ensure sustained labour law standards across the different world countries.
Q) With reference to exit polls in India, consider the following statements:
- Exit polls are conducted before the elections to indicate trends in the election.
- Conducting exit polls is prohibited during the period notified by the Election Commission of India.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
- Statement 1 is incorrect: Exit poll is the opinion of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. This is used to forecast the outcome of an election. Exit polls are different from opinion poll, which is conducted before the elctions. Exit polls are supposed to give an indication of trends in an election, along with the issues, personalities, and loyalties that have influenced voters. Exit polls are usually conducted by a number of organisations, often in tie-ups with media organisations. The surveys can be conducted either face to face or online. Currently, exit polls can’t be published from before voting begins till the last phase of voting concludes.
- Statement 2 is correct: Under Article 324 of the Constitution the Election Commission prohibited newspapers and news channels from publishing results of pre-election surveys and exit polls during voting. However, the guidelines could not be implemented as there was no statutory backing. Section 126 (A) of the Representation of the People’s Act, 1951 ban both exit and opinion polls during a period specified by the Election Commission. Individual or agency violating the directive will face two-year prison term or fine or both.
Q) Consider the following statements about the Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA):
- PADMA is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- PADMA is mandated to address grievances that have not been resolved by digital news publishers within a month.
- PADMA is empowered to hear appeals filed by the complainant against the decision of publishers.
- PADMA is headed by a retired Chief Justice of the High Court.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
- 1, 2 and 4 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 3 and 4 only
- 1, 2, 3 and 4
- Statement 1 is incorrect:Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA) has been approved by the government as a self-regulatory body for publishers of news and current affairs across the country. The organization will have 47 digital news publishers on board and will look at grievances related to digital media news content on their platforms.
- Statement 2 is incorrect:PADMA shall perform functions provided under Rule 12 of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, such as, to oversee and ensure adherence by the publisher to the code of ethics; provide guidance to publishers on issues of the code of ethics, address grievances that have not been resolved by publishers within 15 days.
- Statement 3 is correct:PADMA shall hear appeals filed by the complainant against the decision of publishers and issue such guidance or advisories to publishers for ensuring compliance to the code of ethics. It is a non-governmental organisation that establishes rules and standards relating to the conduct of entities in the industry in order to protect the customer and promote ethics, equality, and professionalism.
- Statement 4 is correct:The Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA) as a self-regulatory body is chaired by former High Court Chief Justice Mool Chand Garg and two members – Ashok Kumar Tandon, Senior Bureaucrat and Journalist and Manoj Kumar Mishra, Senior Journalist and Writer.
Q) Consider the following statements about the ideology of B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi:
- Both agreed on separation of religion from politics.
- Both favoured parliamentary democractic system of polity.
- Gandhi supported the varna system whereas Ambedkar opposed it.
Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 3 only
- Statement 1 is incorrect: In political precepts, Ambedkar believed in freedom of religion, free citizenship and separation of State and religion. Gandhi also endorsed the idea of freedom of religion, but never approved a separation of politics and religion. But religion as an agent of social change was well accepted by both leaders.
- Statement 2 is incorrect: The two leaders differed over the nature and scope of democracy as a method of government. Ambedkar advocated parliamentary system of government for independent India, but Gandhi had very little respect for the parliamentary system of governance. Gandhi believed that democracy tends to get converted into mass democracy with a propensity for domination by leaders. Ambedkar was inclined towards mass democracy as it could act as a pressure on the government with the advancement of the oppressed people
- Statement 3 is correct: Ambedkar denounced the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures. He believed that the Hindu scriptures do not lend themselves to a unified and coherent understanding, and reflect strong contradictions within and across sects. And the caste system and untouchability were the manifestations of the Hindu religious scriptures. On the contrary, Gandhi held that caste system in Hinduism has nothing to do with religious precepts and spirituality. For Gandhi, caste and varna are different, and caste is perversive degeneration. Gandhi was a proponent of the Varna system and belief in the varna-ashrama system was a cardinal qualification to be a Hindu.
Q) With reference to Paris Club, consider the following statements:
- It is an informal group of creditor nations that helps debtor countries stabilize their financial situation.
- All the countries in the Group of Seven (G-7) are members of the Paris Club.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
- Statement 1 is correct: The Paris Club is an informal group of official creditors whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries. As debtor countries undertake reforms to stabilize and restore their macroeconomic and financial situation, Paris Club creditors provide an appropriate debt treatment. Paris Club creditors provide debt treatments to debtor countries in the form of rescheduling, which is debt relief by postponement or, in the case of concessional rescheduling, reduction in debt service obligations during a defined period (flow treatment) or as of a set date (stock treatment). Paris Club creditor nations are proposing a 10-year moratorium on Sri Lankan debt and another 15 years of debt restructuring.
- Statement 2 is correct: It has 22 permanent members, including most of the western European and Scandinavian nations, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. All the members of G7 are currently member states of the Paris Club. The G7 is an informal grouping of seven of the world’s advanced economies, including Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.