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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 26 December 2022


Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2022

Q) In which one of the following State/Union Territory, the ‘Losar festival’ is celebrated?

  1. Ladakh
  2. Uttarakhand
  3. Himachal Pradesh
  4. Arunachal Pradesh

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 24 December 2022


  • Option (1) is correct: Ladakh celebrates Losar Festival to mark the Ladakhi New Year. Losar is the major socio-religious festival of Ladakh celebrated in winter every year. It is celebrated on the first day of the first month of the Tibetan lunar calendar. The term ‘Losar’ means New Year in the Tibetan language. ‘Lo’ means year and ‘Sar’ means new. The festival involves the lighting of prayer lamps, illumination of buildings, houses and religious places. A procession called Metho is carried out on the eve of Losar through the streets, markets, and lanes where people chant sacred slogans and carry flaming torches. The festivities continue for nine more days from the New Year with the offering of prayers in the name of God and Goddess, dances and songs in honour of Ibex and the pilgrimage of Mount Kailash. The New Year is welcomed with dough Models of Ibex Sun and Moon and flour-painted lucky signs on the walls of the kitchen. The third day of the festival is marked with the sighting of first moon of the year with a prayer for bumper crops in the coming year.

Q) With reference to ‘Bomb Cyclone’, consider the following statements:

  1. Its formation is influenced by adiabatic processes.
  2. It can occur both in the winter and summer months.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


  • Statement 1 is correct: The mechanism of formation of a bomb cyclone is similar to that of an extra-tropical cyclone. However, the rapid drop in pressure leads to bombogenesis. Baroclinic instability and adiabatic processes are the principal factors responsible for the rapid drop in pressure a bomb cyclone. Other factors include the relative position of a 500-hPa trough, deep tropospheric frontogenetic processes, the influence of air–sea interaction, and latent heat release.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Bomb cyclone is a predominantly maritime, winter event, but it also occurs in continental settings, even in the summer. It can produce winds of 120 to 155 km/h, and yield heavy precipitation. It is characterized by cold winds, which are also expected to pick up, and temperatures could drop far below zero, enough to cause frostbite within minutes. The four most active regions where extratropical bomb cyclones occur are Northwest Pacific, North Atlantic, Southwest Pacific, and South Atlantic.

Q) Consider the following statements about the ‘Polar bear’:

  1. It is found both in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
  2. It is a keystone as well as an indicator species.
  3. It is listed as an endangered species on the IUCN red list.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


  • Statement 1 is incorrect: Polar bears are the planet’s biggest land-based carnivores – although they actually spend most of their lives around water and ice. Polar bears are restricted to icy Arctic region where temperature falls as low as -50°C. They are found in the frozen wilds of the Arctic, in Canada, Alaska (US), Greenland, Russia and Norway. Polar bears are not found in Antarctica. Their absence is mainly attributed to the evolution, location and climate. Over forty percent of polar bears live in the north of Canada.
  • Statement 2 is correct: The polar bear is the apex predator within its range, and is a keystone species for the Arctic. The big kills made by them serve as a food resource for scavengers like Arctic foxes and Arctic birds. Polar bears are seen as the indicator species of the pristine Arctic environment. Polar bear predation regulates the Arctic seal population, which in turn balances the food chain and health of the ecosystem.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: The polar bear is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red list and as an Appendix II species as per the CITES. An earlier study published in Nature Climate Change in 2020 warned that polar bears will be wiped out by the end of the century. With rising temperatures, the Arctic sea ice is shrinking at a rapid pace, which is crucial to polar bears’ survival as they use it not only to hunt seals ,their chief food, but also for travelling, mating and resting.

Q) With reference to ‘Kala Azar’ disease, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a protozoan parasitic disease.
  2. It is one of the neglected tropical diseases.
  3. It is endemic to a few states in south India.
  4. India has set a target of eliminating kala azar by 2030.

Which of the statements given above are not correct?

  1. 1 and 4 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2 and 4 only


  • Statement 1 is correct: Kala-azar or Visceral Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease, spread by sandfly bites. Sandflies are brown in colour and have hairs on their bodies. The flies are infected with the parasite called ‘leishmania donovani’. According to the WHO, there are 3 main forms of leishmaniases of which kala-azar are the most serious form.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Kala azar or leishmaniases is one of the most dangerous neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and is endemic in 76 countries, with approximately 200 million people at risk of infection. The disease affects some of the poorest people and is linked to malnutrition, population displacement, poor housing, a weak immune system and a lack of financial resources. Leishmaniasis is also linked to environmental changes such as deforestation, and urbanisation, according to WHO.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: In India, the disease is endemic to the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Leishmaniasis is a treatable and curable disease, which requires an immuno-competent system and thus those having a weak immune system are prone to get severely affected. As per the National Centre for Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NCVBDC), in people with a light skin tone, greyish discolouration of the skin of hands, feet, abdomen and face may be seen, that is why the disease is also called “Black fever”.
  • Statement 4 is incorrect: Union Government of India has set the target to eliminate Kala-azar from country by 2023. The number of cases has been brought down significantly through the National Kala-Azar Elimination Programme.

Q) Consider the following statements about One Rank One Pension (OROP):

  1. OROP also covers armed forces personnel who retired prematurely from the service.
  2. OROP only applies to military personnel who retired before 2014.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


  • Both statements are incorrect: One Rank One Pension (OROP) means that any two military personnel retiring at the same rank, with the same years of service, must get an equal pension. As per the recent revision of pension under the One Rank One Pension (OROP), armed forces personnel with a retirement date up to June 30, 2019, excluding premature retirees will be covered. The pension of the past pensioners would be re-fixed on the basis of average of minimum and maximum pension of defence forces retirees of calendar year 2018 in the same rank with the same length of service. The future the pension would be re-fixed every 5 years. The benefit would also be extended to family pensioners, including war widows and disabled pensioners. Arrears will be paid in four half-yearly installments. However, all the family pensioners, including those in receipt of Special/Liberalized Family Pension and Gallantry Award Winners, shall be paid arrears in one installment.


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