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American Revolution: Between 1765 and 1783, colonial North America experienced an ideological and political change known as the American Revolution. In the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), commonly known as the American Revolution, the Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British, gaining independence from the British Crown and founding the United States of America, the first contemporary constitutional liberal democracy.
13 of Britain’s North American colonies rebelled against its imperial rule, sparking an epic political and military conflict known as the American Revolution that lasted from 1765 to 1783. The protest started out in opposition to levies imposed by the British Crown and Parliament without colonial representation. Read all about the American Revolution for UPSC Preparation.
American Revolution Causes
1. American Revolution Political causes
The British parliament did not include any representatives for the colonies. Despite the British winning the seven years war (1756–1763), it depleted her resources. To make up for the losses, she turned to colonies. The big colonies suffered the most because they were in North America. Particularly harsh penalties were imposed on the colonies’ young enterprises.
This was done with the help of British native industrialists campaigning. Many claimed that the British government had no right to tax the colonies because they weren’t represented in the British parliament. The phrase “No Taxation without Representation” was used by them. Over time, Britain’s ability to impose taxes was undermined by protests like the Boston Tea Party (1773), in which tea cartons from British ships were thrown into the water. Assuming this authority were the corresponding local governments.
2. American Revolution Economic Causes
The economic growth of the colonies was hindered by English policies. They were required by laws to solely utilise British ships for international trade. Cotton, sugar, and tobacco products were the only ones that could be shipped to England. Products from other colonies and outside of England are subject to high import charges. In the colonies, it was forbidden to develop industries like iron, steel, and textiles. The colonies were compelled to import goods from England. Policies were put in place to prevent the colonies’ industry and trade from expanding.
Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1765. Stamping was made necessary for all official documents. Widespread protests followed, many of which turned violent. The majority of the land in North America was purchased by English nobles, who also restricted the colonists’ ability to buy land in the west. They desired to retain the settlers as tenants indefinitely.
The British attempts to impose taxes ran into opposition. Despite opposition, Britain was compelled to remove all taxes but the one on tea. It sparked demonstrations like the Boston Tea Party. It was decided that the British parliament lacked the authority to tax the colonies because there was no representation from the colonies in it. The British considered this to be seditious, but the colonists were unafraid.
3. American Revolution Ideological Cause
The popular imagination was captured by enlightenment intellectuals like Locke, Harrington, and Milton. They held that no authority should be permitted to violate the unalienable rights that all individuals possess. In stark contrast to the repressive British authority, this was. Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson were only two of the numerous intellectuals who detested the inequalities of British society. They proclaimed the freedom to resist and stressed the absurdity of having an island rule over a continent.
American Revolution Timeline
There are four separate acts that were approved by the British Parliament. Taxes levied by the British in America on goods including paper and glass paint. The acts were given their names by the British Americans who lived there and supported Charles Townshend.
Stamp Act of 1765
A direct tax was imposed on the British American colonies by an act of the British Parliament. Taxes were assessed on legal documents, ship papers, licenses, various publications, and playing cards.
Tea Act of 1773
It was a law enacted by the British Parliament. Due to this regulation, American businesses were required to pay British tea taxes. It is regarded as having inspired the Boston Tea Party. Taxation cannot exist without representation. It is a cry used by Americans who are enraged with the British for making them pay taxes but denying them any influence in how the country was administered.
Boston Tea Party
It was an occurrence that happened in 1773. American nationalists posing as Mohawk Indians threw around 342 trunks of tea from ships into Boston Harbor. The tea belonged to the British East India Company.
The British also refer to event as “Incident on King Street.” The event happened on March 5, 1770. It alludes to the murder of five Americans who were protesting British taxes.
It is another moniker for the nationalists who fought for independence from the British authority.
American Revolution and Declaration of Independence
Philadelphia hosted the first continental convention (1774), which brought together members from 13 colonies. The king disregarded their request for fair treatment and labeled their activities as mutiny. Colonial militias and British soldiers first engaged in combat in the year 1775, which marked the beginning of the War.
The Second Continental Congress (1776) saw the congress once more, and on July 4, it proclaimed independence. The statement said, among other things, that men have unalienable rights that needed to be safeguarded. The Bill of Rights later expanded on this. The Bill of Rights of the United States was accepted by the Indian Constitution as fundamental rights.
Authorities were viewed as coming from people. The first democratic state with a written constitution would result from this. The French, who were searching for a chance to attack Britain, helped the Americans. The Irish revolt, which was simmering at home, made things tough for the British.
Other British adversaries, such as Spain and Holland, began engaging them in combat in various parts of the continent. With the surrender of Lord Cornwallis to George Washington in 1781, the war came to a conclusion. The war was officially ended by the treaty of Paris, which was signed in 1783 by England and the USA.
American Revolution Importance
A republic based on the first written constitution in history was established as a result of the revolution. In contrast to the other states where monarchies still held sway, this stood very clearly. People all across the world were motivated by this to fight for democratic and republican forms of government. It created a federal state where the central government and the states had equal authority. This offered a suitable model for power-sharing in many nations that needed intricate political systems.
Additionally, different state organs had their own distinct areas of authority. Individuals were granted a set of unalienable rights, which placed restrictions on the government’s ability to challenge popular authority and meddle in people’s daily affairs. Although democracy had been formed, it was far from ideal. Voting rights were denied to groups like African Americans and women. But the road to democracy had already started.
Numerous upheavals followed, with the French Revolution being the largest in Europe. Many of the war’s generals played important roles in the French Revolution. Thomas Paine and other philosophers took part in the revolution. As a result, contemporary concepts were propagated throughout Europe.
American Revolution Impact
The history of the modern world was significantly impacted by the American Revolution. It offered a model for how contemporary ideas could topple repressive systems.
The subsequent success of the United States in the international sphere is evidence of the potency of the liberal democratic and populist liberation ideologies. Following World War II, numerous nations (especially those in Europe) successfully imitated this approach. In addition to incorporating these democratic values to our own democratic socialist beliefs, India has also learned a lot from the American experience.
The goal of the American Civil War was to prevent the South from seceding from the Union. The main difference between the North and the South was slavery. The Union forces’ victory over the Confederates in the Battle of Gettysburg marked a turning point in the Civil War. President Lincoln urged the people of the United States to resolve that “a government of the people, by the people, for the people, should not vanish from the earth” in his well-known “Gettysburg Address” following the fight.
American Revolution Summary
The first battle between British soldiers and the colonial militia took place in Lexington in Massachusetts in 1775, sparking the start of the conflict. George Washington takes over control of the army of the American colonies shortly after. At Bunker Hill, British General Gage triumphed.
The conflict changed course after the Saratoga triumph. Lafayette’s French forces arrived to aid the American colonies. At Yorktown in 1781, the British forces led by General Cornwallis finally submitted to Washington. The Treaty of Paris, signed in 1783, put an end to the conflict.
American Revolution FAQs
Q) What was the American Revolution and why did it happen?
Ans. 13 of Britain’s North American colonies rebelled against its imperial rule, sparking an epic political and military conflict known as the American Revolution that lasted from 1765 to 1783. The protest started out in opposition to levies imposed by the British Crown and Parliament without colonial representation.
Q) What were the 3 main causes of the American Revolution?
Ans. The four key factors that sparked the American Revolution were the Taxation Acts, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and the Intolerable Acts.
Q) How did American Revolution start?
Ans. The military battle began in Lexington and Concord in April 1775 with skirmishes between British forces and colonial militiamen; by the summer, the rebels were conducting a full-scale war for their freedom.
Q) What happened during the American Revolution?
Ans. The United Nations of America was the first nation-state to be built on Enlightenment concepts of liberal democracy after the Americans in the Thirteen Colonies became sovereign states that defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
Q) Why did America want independence?
Ans. America wanted independence because they didn’t have self-government.