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Current Affairs 20th September 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam

Current Affairs 20th September 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam

Five Eyes Alliance

Context: Canada’s accusation of India with respect to its role in the assassination of a Khalistani leader has received support from the Five Eyes intelligence alliance.

About the Five Eyes (FVEY) Alliance

  • Origin: Established after World War II as part of the multilateral UKUSA Agreement.
    • The UKUSA Agreement is an agreement of cooperation signed between the United Kingdom and the United States in 1946.
  • Why was it formed?
    • After World War II, the allies laid out goals for a peaceful post world war era.
    • In 1941, the allies issued the Atlantic charter which outlined the aims of the United Kingdom and United States for the post World war World.
    • The key provisions include:
      • No territorial changes shall be made against the wishes of the people.
      • Restoration of self-government to those who were deprived of it.
      • Freedom of the seas.
      • Freedom from fear.
      • Disarmament of aggressor nations.
    • The alliance has so far mainly targeted China, Russia and North Korea.
  • Objective: To enhance cooperation in signals intelligence (SIGINT) and share intelligence information among the member countries.
    • Signals intelligence (SIGINT) involves intercepting and deciphering electronic communications, such as phone calls, emails, and other forms of electronic data.
  • Members: Comprises intelligence agencies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • Surveillance Programmes operated by Five Eyes Alliance: PRISM, Tempora, XKeyscore, STATEROOM, ECHELON, and MUSCULAR.
  • Intelligence-sharing agreements have now expanded beyond the Five Eyes:
    • 9 Eyes: The Five Eyes, with the addition of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Norway;
    • 14 Eyes: The 9 Eyes, with the addition of Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain and Sweden;
    • 41 Eyes: All of the above, with the addition of the allied coalition in Afghanistan.

Related Information

World’s Premier Intelligence Agencies

Intelligence Agency Country
Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) India
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) United States
MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6) United Kingdom
Federal Security Services Russia
Federal Intelligence Service or Bundesnachrichtendienst or BND Germany
Ministry of State Security (MSS) China
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISS) Pakistan

About the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW)

  • Established in 1968 following the intelligence failures of the Sino-Indian War.
  • Objective: To handle external intelligence.
    • Prior to RAW, the Intelligence Bureau (IB) was solely responsible for gathering both internal and external intelligence.
    • After 1968, IB’s role was confined to internal intelligence.
  • Headquarter: New Delhi
  • Under the direct control of the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO).
  • The first chief of R&AW was Rameshwar Nath Kao, regarded as the father of Indian intelligence.
  • Headed by a Secretary (Research), who is an IPS officer of the rank of Director General of Police.
    • The Secretary (Research) reports directly to the Prime Minister of India and is accountable to a parliamentary committee on intelligence matters.

Current Affairs 19th September 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam