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Amendment of the Constitution of India, Provisions and List

Amendment of the Constitution of India

Amendment of the Constitution of India means the process of making changes to the Constitution. The parliament has the authority to change the constitution under Article 368 of Part XX. The best way to understand the nature of the constitutional amendment process is to use Pandit Nehru’s insight that the Constitution shouldn’t be so rigid that it can’t be modified to meet changing requirements for national progress and strength.

In this article, we will discuss the Amendment of the Constitution of India which is an important topic of Polity subject of the UPSC Syllabus. Students can also go for UPSC Mock Test to get more accuracy in their preparation.

Amendment of the Constitution of India and Provision

The Amendment of the Constitution of India is a process that is neither as simple as that in Britain (which has no written constitution and is based on convention) nor as challenging as that in the USA. The Indian Constitution is a mix of both flexibility and rigidity. The power of Parliament to modify the Constitution and its process are covered in Section 368 of Part XX of the Constitution. The method for amending the constitution is taken from the South African constitution.

The only body with the authority to modify the constitution is Parliament. According to the Supreme Court’s decision in the Kesavananda Bharati case, Parliament cannot modify the clauses that make up the fundamental framework of the constitution. (1973). There is no provision in Article 108 for a joint session in the event that both chambers of Congress disagree on a constitutional amendment bill. The president’s permission is not necessary in advance for the presentation of a constitutional change measure.

Amendment of the Constitution of India

State legislatures cannot begin a constitutional amendment process; instead, a measure must be introduced in one of the two houses of parliament. The president’s previous approval is not necessary for either a ministry or a private member to present the measure. A special majority, defined as a majority of the entire membership of the House and a majority of two-thirds of the members present and voting, is required for the bill to pass in each House.

The bill must be approved by each House separately. There is no provision for holding a joint session of the two Houses to discuss and enact the measure in the event of a disagreement between them. The measure is brought to the president for assent after being duly approved by both Houses of Parliament and, if required, the state legislatures. The bill must receive the president’s approval. He is unable to refuse to sign the law or send it back for the Parliament to reconsider. The bill becomes an Act (i.e., a constitutional amendment act) after receiving the president’s approval, and the Constitution is changed in conformity with the Act’s provisions.

Amendment of the Constitution of India List

Since its creation in 1950, the Indian Constitution has had 104 revisions as of January 2020.

S. No. Amendments in the Constitution Description
1 First Amendment Act, 1951


  • Given the state the authority to promote the social and economic advancement of underprivileged groups.
  • Provided for the preservation of legislation governing the purchase of estates, etc. 9th Schedule was added in order to shield the Land Reform Act and other measures contained in it from judicial review.
  • Included three additional justifications for limiting free speech, including public order, cordial ties with other countries, and inciting criminal activity. Additionally, it rendered the limitations “reasonable” and hence justified.
  •  As long as state trading and nationalization of any trade or business by the state are not invalidated on the grounds that the trade or business rights were violated.
2 Constitutional (13th Amendment) Act,1963
  • The creation of Nagaland as a state, which is given special protection under Article 371A. The change to Article 170 (Composition of the Legislative Assemblies)
3 Constitutional (15th Amendment) Act, 1963


  • Made it possible for the High Courts to issue writs to any person or organization, even if they are not subject to its terrorist’s jurisdiction if the cause of action occurs inside its boundaries. Raised the high court judges’ retirement age from 60 to 62 years old.
  • Permitted the appointment of retired high court justices to serve in an acting capacity on the same court. Provided judges moving from one High court to another with the compensatory allowance.
  • Permitted the retired High Court judge to serve as an ad hoc Supreme Court judge.  Outlined the process for calculating the age of judges on the Supreme Court and the High Court.
4 The Constitution (24th Amendment) Act, 1971


  • Reaffirmed that any provision of the Constitution, including the Fundamental Rights, may be amended by Parliament. Made the president’s assent to a constitutional amendment bill necessary.
5 The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act, 1975
  • Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union as a result of this Act.
6 The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976
  • It was put into effect when there was an internal emergency. On November 11, 1976, the Parliament approved it, and on December 18, 1976, the President gave his approval.
  • The amendment clearly stated that Parliament was superior to all other branches of government, gave directive principles precedence over fundamental rights, and listed 10 fundamental duties for the first time.
  • It also set additional restrictions on the judiciary’s authority and jurisdiction, increased the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha’s terms from five to six years, authorized the use of the Central Armed Forces in any State to address law and order issues, bound the President to the advice of the Council of Ministers, and planned the creation of administrative tribunals for resolving employment disputes involving public employees as well as other tribunals for economic offences.
  • Another important provision of the Act was that no Constitutional Amendment may be challenged in a court of law.
7 The Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, 1978
  • The objectionable sections of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the Emergency are repealed by this Act. By repealing Article 3ID, which allowed Parliament to restrict even legal union activity under the cover of legislation to stop anti-national activity, it restores civil liberties.
  • The newly enacted law, which was approved by more than half of the States in accordance with the Constitution, also gives the States again the ability to pass laws that are appropriate for anti-national acts while upholding the Fundamental Rights. The Act also permits the judiciary to reclaim its proper position.
  • The 42nd Amendment Act stripped the Supreme Court of its ability to declare state legislation unconstitutional; this ability will now be restored. The High Courts will also be able to consider the constitutionality of Central laws, allowing those who live in remote areas to receive prompt justice without having to visit the Supreme Court.
8 The Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978
  • On April 30, 1979, the Constitution (45th Amendment) Bill, now known as the 44th Amendment, became a law after receiving the president’s approval.
  • The Act eliminates significant Constitutional alterations made during the Emergency. The regular term, which was prolonged during the Emergency under the 42nd Amendment to serve specific political objectives, has been cut from six to five years for the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies.
  • For the first time since independence, the Act extends constitutional protection for publication of the proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures, unless it is proven to be “malicious,” and the Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and only remains a legal right.
  • Another significant aspect of the Act is that from ahead, the President will only declare proclamations of emergencies after receiving written advice from the whole Cabinet. The Prime Minister’s recommendation will not be used to compel the President to take unilateral action without first consulting his Cabinet. The proclamation must be approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of both Houses of Parliament within a month, according to additional protections.
  • The 44th Amendment offers protections against the Constitution’s being subverted in the future to install a totalitarian government. It includes clauses that are meant to prevent the imposition of the kind of emergency the nation had endured for 19 months.
9 The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act, 1985
  • The Act has rendered switching parties after elections unlawful. Any candidate who switches parties after the election will not be eligible to serve in the state legislature or the parliament.
10 The Constitution (61st Amendment) Act, 1989
  • The voting age was lowered from 21 to 18
11 The Constitution (66th Amendment) Act, 1990
  • To make land reforms subject to the Constitution’s 9th Schedule.
12 The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991
  • National Capital Region was formed by Delhi. The Act also established a council of ministers for Delhi and a legislative assembly.
13 The Constitution (70th Amendment) Act, 1992


  • Article 54, which governs the election of the President, called for an electoral college made up only of elected members of Parliament and the State legislative assembly before this act was passed (not of Union Territories). The modification allows for the participation of Pondicherry and Delhi legislators.
14 The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992


  • Ensuring direct elections for all Panchayat seats; allocating seats to SCs and STs according to their numbers; and allocating at least one-third of Panchayat seats to women.
15 The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992
  • Direct elections were intended to be held for all positions in Nagar Palikas and Municipalities.
16 The Constitution (78th Amendment) Act, 1995
  • It places land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule, preventing legal challenges to them.
17 The Constitution (81st Amendment) Act, 2000


  • It states that the prior list would not be taken into account for filling the 50% quota of the relevant year, and that the unfilled vacancies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Article 16 shall be regarded separately for filling vacancies in the subsequent year.
18 The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000


  • The Act modified Article 243 M to state that in Arunachal Pradesh, where the entire population is tribal, no reservations for SC/ST may be made in Panchayats.
19 The Constitution (85th Amendment) Act, 2001


  • With retroactive effect from June 1995, provided for “consequential seniority” in cases of promotion due to the rule of reservation for government employees belonging to the SCs and STs.
20 The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002
  • Offers early childhood care until the age of six and the right to an education until the age of fourteen.
21 The Constitution (87th Amendment) Act, 2003


  • As opposed to what was previously granted by the 84th Amendment Act of 2001, this provision allowed for the readjustment and rationalization of territorial constituencies in the states based on population statistics from the 2001 census rather than those from the 1991 one.
22 The Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003


  • Created the National Commission of SCs (Article-338) and National Commission of STs from the former merged National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (338-A).
23 The Constitution (91st Amendment) Act, 2004


  • Strengthened the anti-defection rules and limited the size of the Council of Ministers (CoM) to 15% of parliamentary members.
24 The Constitution (93rd Amendment) Act, 2006


  • Added a 27% reserve for additional disadvantaged groups in public and private higher education institutions.
25 The Constitution (94th Amendment) Act, 2006


  • To establish a Minister of Tribal Welfare in the recently constituted states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, which include Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
26 The Constitution (97th Amendment) Act, 2012


  • Changed Article 19(l)(c) to read “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions,” added Article 43B, which is about promoting cooperative societies, and added Part-IXB, which is about cooperative societies.
27 The Constitution (99th Amendment) Act, 2014
  • The amendment calls for the establishment of a National Commission for Judicial Appointments.
28 The Constitution (100th Amendment) Act, 2015


  • In the fourth week of May 2015, the Constitution (100th Amendment) Act, 2015 made headlines after Indian President Pranab Mukherjee approved the Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013, which dealt with the Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh.
29 The Constitution (101th Amendment) Act, 2017
  • Commenced the Goods and Services Tax on July 1st in the nation.
30 The Constitution (102th Amendment) Act,2018
  • It granted the National Commission for Backward Classes constitutional status.
31 The Constitution (103th Amendment) Act,2019
  •  It allowed for a 10% reservation at most for economically weaker sections (EWSs).
32 The Constitution (104th Amendment) Act, 2020
  • It increased the number of seats reserved for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures.

Amendment of the Constitution of India in Past

There are 105 amendment acts as of December 2021 that is made in the Indian Constitution over time. All these amendments have brought significant changes in the course of Indian Polity.

Amendment of the Constitution of India UPSC

These amendments made so far prove that the constitution of India is a living document. Many amendments have been made to adopt the change in society and needs. Yet our constitution held some basic characteristics and values which guided us throughout the past. This great blend of flexibility and rigidity is the reason for the successful survival of the constitution so far. Students can read all the details related to UPSC by visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

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Amendment of the Constitution of India FAQs

How is the Constitution of India amended?

Constitution of India amended can be amended by majority of the Parliament, by special majority of the Parliament, special majority of the Parliament and the ratification of at least half of the state legislatures.

What is the latest amendment of the Constitution of India?

The Latest Amendment in Indian Constitution is the Constitution 105th Amendment Act 2021.

How many Amendment are in the Indian Constitution from 1947 till now?

It has been amended 105 times.

Why is Constitution amended?

Constitutions need to be amended over time to adjust provisions that are inadequate, to respond to new needs, including supplementing rights, etc.

When was Constitution amended in India?

18th June, 1951 was the first time when Constitution amended in India.

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