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Tribal Movement in India, Causes, Phase and List

Tribal Movements in India

In the 18th and 19th centuries, India was ruled by the British, and during that time, tribal movements were renowned to be the most pervasive, violent, and terrifying. Tribal uprisings in India can be divided into two categories: those that occur on the country’s main land and those that occur near its borders, mostly in the northeast.

Tribal people had long coexisted harmoniously with nature before the British started to occupy their country. Candidates must study our subject matter experts’ comprehensive post on Tribal Movements in India to get ready for the Modern History portion for UPSC Exam.

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Tribal Movements in India Causes

Hunting, fishing, and gathering were the primary pursuits of Tribal households. Tribal lands were lost as a result of the concept of settled agriculture being introduced by the inflow of non-tribal people. Tribal peoples reduced to little more than landless agricultural labourers. The introduction of moneylenders was intended to benefit the local population, but it actually made Tribals’ circumstances worse.

The tribal population’s Joint Ownership structure was replaced with Private Ownership. Use of forest products, relocating agriculture, and hunting methods were all subject to restrictions. In contrast to mainstream culture, which was characterized by caste and class inequalities, tribal civilization has historically been egalitarian. They assigned the lower ranks to the tribal people as non-tribals entered their areas, which made their situation even worse.

In order to manage the abundant riches of Indian woods, the government established a Forest Department in 1864. Governmental monopoly over the wooded land was established by the Government Forest Act of 1865 and the Indian Forest Act of 1878. Moreover, Christian missionaries arrived and began converting the native people to Christianity.

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Tribal Movements in India Types

The seven northeastern frontier states of Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura are home to the so-called “Frontier Tribes.”

Non-Frontier Tribes make up 89% of all tribes. The non-frontier tribes in Andhra Pradesh, Central India, and West-Central India are primarily where you can find them. The Bhil, Koya, Gond, Kol, and Khond tribes were a few of the tribes that took part in the tribal movements. These tribes’ revolutions were quite violent and involved multiple significant upheavals.

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Tribal Movements in India Phases

The following three phases are used to categories Tribal Movements in India:

Phase Timeline Description
1st Phase 1795 to 1860 The most significant tribal uprisings at this time were the Kol Revolt, Khond Rebellion, Santhal Uprising, and Early Munda Uprising.
2nd Phase 1860 to 1920 It includes both the Koya Rebellion and the Munda Rebellion commanded by Birsamunda.
3rd  Phase 1920 to 1947 It encompasses the Rampa Revolt, the Tanabhagat/Oraon Movement, and the Chenchu Tribal Movement.

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Tribal Movements in India List

Tribal Uprising Year Features
Chuar Uprising 1766 A group formed by the native tribesmen of Midnapore to protest the need for land income and the associated suffering.
Pahariyas’ Rebellion 1778 The Pahariyas of Raj Mahal Hills were headed by Raja Jagganath in their fight to British encroachment on their land.
Bhil Uprising 1818 – 1831 and 1913 In the Western Ghats, Bhil Raj was founded as a means of defiance against Company rule. To support Bhil Raj, Govind Guru recreated the group in 1913.
Ho and Munda Uprisings 1820 – 1837 The new farming revenue programme is resisted by Ho tribals in the Singhbhum and Chottanagpur region led by Raja Parahat. This ultimately resulted in the Munda uprising.
Ramosi Uprising 1822 – 1829 In opposition to British dominance over the region, it was established by the Ramosi clan of the western ghats, led by Chittur Singh.
Koli Uprising 1829 The tribal populations of Gujrat and Maharashtra revolted against the Company’s control in 1829, 1839, and 1844–1848.
Kol Rebellion 1832 The Chottanagpur tribes rebelled under Buddho Bagat against the British and moneylenders.
Khond Rebellion 1837 – 1856 From Bengal to Tamil Nadu, Chakra Bisoi led a revolt of hill tribes against the encroachment of outsiders and the imposition of new taxes.
Santhal Rebellion 1855 – 1856 Sido and Kanhu-led tribal organisations in Bihar against zamindars and moneylenders.
Bhuyan and Juang Rebellions 1867 Tribes in Keonjhar, Orissa, mounted two uprisings in 1867 and 1891.
Naikada Movement 1868 Madhya Pradesh and Gujarati tribes fought caste Hindus and the British to establish Dharma Raj.
Kharwar Rebellion 1870 Tribal organizations in Bihar were opposed to measures involving revenue settlement.
Ahom’s Revolt 1828 – 1833 Opposition to the British government’s failed promise to leave Assam following the Burmese war.
Khasis’ Revolt 1830 In the Jaintia and Garo hills, Tirath Singh oversaw a revolt against foreign occupation.
Singphos’ Rebellion 1830 It was started in Assam against the British control of their region.
Koya Uprising 1879 – 1880 The tribes of the eastern Godavari region, led by Tomma Sora and Raja Annantyar, overthrew the police and moneylenders.
Munda Rebellion 1899 – 1900 The native tribes of Chotanagpur rose up in rebellion against the “Dikus” under the direction of Birsa Munda.”

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Tribal Movements in India UPSC

Given that the Tribal Movements in India UPSC topic is a significant event in Indian history, it is possible that a question may be asked about it. To make your exam preparation easier, our subject matter expert has put together the most useful notes on this topic. Read all about Tribal Movements in India for UPSC Exam Preparations.

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How many tribal movements are there in India?

The Khasi Uprising (1830), Ahom Revolt (1828), and Singhphos Rebellion were the three major frontier tribal movements.

What are the five tribal movements?

• Ethnic rebellion,
• Reform movements,
• Political autonomy movements within the Indian Union,
• Secessionist movements, and
• Agrarian unrest.

Who started tribal movement in India?

The Rampa Revolt of 1922, often referred to as the Manyam Rebellion, was a tribal insurrection in British India's Godavari Agency of the Madras Presidency that was led by Alluri Sitarama Raju. It started in August 1922 and lasted until Raju was apprehended and killed in May 1924.

Which was the first tribal movement?

First tribal uprising in India, led by Raghunath Mahto, took place in Chuar from 1766 to 1772.

What is the concept of tribal movement?

Tribal movements made demands for formation of a separate state, greater autonomy, and development of a script and for independent identity. Such movements were related to cultural and political revivalism.

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