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Third Battle of Panipat, History, Causes, Result, Consequences

Third Battle of Panipat

Read all about the Third Battle of Panipat for UPSC. The Maratha Empire’s northern invasion force and a coalition led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, King of Afghanistan, and two Indian Muslim allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh—fought in the Third Battle of Panipat on January 14, 1761, at Panipat.

In terms of warfare, the Afghan and Rohilla heavy cavalry and mounted artillery (zamburak and jizail), commanded by Ahmad Shah Durrani and Najib-ud-Daulah, both of Pashtun descent, engaged the Marathas’ French-supplied artillery and cavalry (the former is also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali). You will learn about the Third Battle of Panipat in this article, which will help you with your preparation for the UPSC Civil Service Exam.

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Third Battle of Panipat Background

Following the 27-year Mughal-Maratha conflict (1680–1707), the Mughal Empire fell, and the Maratha Empire quickly expanded its territory. Peshwa Baji Rao brought Malwa and Gujarat under Maratha rule. Finally, in 1737, Baji Rao destroyed the Mughals on the outskirts of Delhi, bringing Maratha rule to much of the old Mughal region south of Delhi.

As a result, the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali’s Durrani Empire were at odds. In Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani founded the Durrani Empire in 1747. In 1747, he annexed Lahore. Since then, he has also grabbed control of Sindh and Punjab. The governor of Lahore was Timur Shah, the son of Durrani. The Maratha Peshwa Bajirao was successful in capturing Lahore and driving away Timur Shah.

He organized a Pashtun army in 1759, and it successfully defeated a number of Punjabi Maratha garrisons. Only hardly noticeable Mughal rule existed in Delhi. Many people petitioned Durrani to stop the Marathas’ rapid growth because they were worried about it. He then joined forces with his Indian friends, the Rohilla Afghans of the Gangetic Doab, to build a broad alliance against the Marathas.

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Third Battle of Panipat Fought Between

Mathematically speaking, the combined power of Durrani and his allies was superior to the Maratha military forces. The assistance of Shuja-ud-daulah was also amply shown by the fact that he provided the vital cash for the Afghans’ protracted stays in northern India. Pune served as the Maratha capital, and the battleground was kilometres distant.

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Role of Shuja-ud-Daulah in Third Battle of Panipat

Both the Marathas and the Afghans made an effort to ensconce Shuja-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh, in their camp. Shuja-ud-Daulah made the decision to join the Afghan-Rohilla coalition at the end of July, citing his preference to join the “army of Islam.” Shuja had provided much-needed finances for the Afghans’ protracted presence in North India, so this was a strategic blow for the Marathas. Without Shuja’s assistance, it seems unlikely that the Afghan-Rohilla coalition could continue fighting the Marathas.

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Reasons for Afghan Victory in Third Battle of Panipat

The Maratha army was outnumbered by Durrani and his allies’ combined force. The aid of Shuja-ud-Daulah was also essential since he provided the money required for the Afghans’ protracted stay in northern India. Pune served as the Maratha capital, and the battleground was far distant. In August 1760, the Maratha camp, at last, made it to Delhi and conquered it.

The Marathas defeated an Afghan garrison of roughly 15,000 men in a fight at Kunjpura, which was followed by a series of battles along Yamuna’s banks. Abdali, however, bravely cut off the Maratha camp from their stronghold in Delhi in October by crossing the Yamuna at Baghpat. This ultimately turned into a two-month siege against the Marathas in the town of Panipat, led by Abdali.

Both sides attempted to cut off each other’s supplies throughout the siege, although the Afghans were far more effective. They had almost cut off all food supplies to the besieged Maratha camp by the end of November 1760. In the Maratha camp, hundreds of cattle perished by the time the food ran out in late December or early January. Early in January, rumours of soldiers starving to death started to spread.

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Third Battle of Panipat Causes

1. Rebellion within the Mughal Empire

The foundation of the Mughal Empire was upset by Nadir Shah’s invasion. The Lord liberated the areas where the Sardars were occupied. The solidarity among Sardars was ended since the Sayyad siblings had perished. Ahmed became braver after learning about this condition.

2. Maratha Power at the top

By increasing their impact on Karnataka and the Nizam, Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao and his Generals had already established their dread throughout the South. Raghunathrao then pillaged Punjab and raised his flag till the attack. As the legislative leader of Punjab, Raghunathrao installed his trustworthy Sardar Adani Beg and defeated the Vimurashah offspring of Ahmed Shah Abdali. Therefore, Ahmed Shah Abdali decided to attack India.

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3. Inside Conflict

The Mughal Emperor visited the Marathas’ refuge out of fear for their authority. With the aid of the Marathas, Mughal Vajeet Safdarjang destroyed the Ruhela Sardars. As a result, Ruhela became into a Maratha and Mughal enemy. The Marathas also started fighting the Nizam, the Avadh, and the Rajputs. Due to the interference on the subject of Ishwar Singh and Madhav Singh’s advancement, Scindia and Holkar became extra adversaries. Ahmed Shah Abdali received a tonne of support as a result of this internal question.

4. Maratha Hinduism

Marathas are very strongly influenced by Hinduism. They were making an effort to expand their Hindu Empire. Every Muslim in India yearned for them. Similarly, Rajputs did not assist them.

5. Greeting to Ahmed Shah Abdali

Internal conflict has helped a lot of trend-setters succeed in India. Intruder Muhammad Ghori was welcomed by Jai Chand, and Babur was welcomed by Daulat Khan. The same was true for Ruhels and Rajputs, who had encouraged Ahmed Shah Abdali to attack India.

6. Fire-outrage of the Ahmed Shah Abdali

For a long time, Ahmed Shah Abdali ruled over Punjab, Sirhind, and other places. He was also defeated in several instances. His fury at the Marathas’ victory in Punjab was intense. He attacked India after receiving the salutation of the Ruhels and Rajputs immediately.

3rd Battle of Panipat Consequences

Following the fight, the Afghan army killed tens of thousands of Maratha troops and residents in the streets of Panipat. In camps in Afghanistan, the vanquished women and children were sold as slaves. Approximately 40,000 Maratha prisoners were brutally murdered a day after the fight.

Sadashivrao Bhau and Peshwa’s son Vishwasrao were among the combatants who perished. The Peshwa, Balaji Bajirao, never fully recovered from the shock of the disaster. There were numerous fatalities on both sides. The Maratha uprising was suppressed, but ten years later, they retook Delhi under Peshwa Madhavrao. Durrani didn’t spend a lot of time in India. He restored Mughal Shah Alam II to the throne in Delhi.

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Third Battle of Panipat Result

The conflict prevented future Maratha advances in the north and caused their lands to become unstable for about ten years. Peshwa Madhavrao’s rule during this ten-year span is notable because he is credited with restoring Maratha supremacy following the defeat at Panipat.

Peshwa Madhavrao led a sizable Maratha force into North India in 1771, ten years after Panipat, in an effort to re-establish Maratha supremacy in the area and to punish recalcitrant rulers that had either collaborated with the Afghans, like the Rohillas or had shrugged off Maratha dominance after Panipat. The victory of this campaign can be seen as the conclusion of Panipat’s lengthy history.

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Who won in 3rd Battle of Panipat?

After defeating many Maratha flanks, the forces commanded by Ahmad Shah Durrani prevailed.

Why was 3rd battle of Panipat fought?

As his soldiers yelled for pay in March, Abdali hastily departed Delhi. Both to defend the effete Mughal dynasty and India from the attacks that started with Nadir Shah in 1739, the battle of Panipat was fought.

Why did Marathas lost third battle of Panipat?

On the battlefield, the Afghan heavy mounted artillery outperformed the Marathas' light artillery by a wide margin.

Who won third battle of Panipat Upsc?

Afgans won the 3rd Battle of Panipat.

Who died in 3rd Panipat war?

30,000 killed in battle 10,000 killed while retreating 10,000 missing.

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