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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 2 December 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 1 December 2022

  • On November 27, West Bengal Police seized 270 kg of tuhttps://www.studyiq.com/articles/the-hindu-newspaper-analysis-30-November-2022/rtle calipee (a gelatinous layer found in the lower shells of turtles, believed to be used in traditional Chinese medicine) in Malda district. The consignment was meant to be smuggled to Bangladesh.
  • In a move to curb turtle trafficking, earlier this month, the Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted India’s proposal to transfer two species of freshwater turtles found in the country — the red-crowned roofed turtle (Batagur kachuga) and the Leith’s Softshell Turtle (Nilssonia leithii) — to Appendix I (which lists the most endangered species that need the highest level of protection) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES).

The Hindu Editorial Today

  • Conservation experts and law enforcement agencies have welcomed CITES (an international treaty to ensure that trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival) upgrade of the two species at a time when illegal trade is threatening their natural habitats.
  • India has 29 species of freshwater turtles (24) and tortoises (5). The main difference between the two is that turtles are primarily aquatic whereas tortoises are terrestrial and spend more time on land. More than half of the turtle species are threatened and 11 are protected under Schedule I of The Wildlife Protection Act, enjoying the same protection as tigers.
  • For the red-crowned roofed turtle, found only within the National Chambal Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary (NCGWS) spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, threats have been mounting over the past few decades. The species recently made it to the list of the 25 most threatened freshwater turtles in the world, along with northern river terrapin (Batagur baska) which is left only in the Sundarbans.

What is CITES?

  • CITES is an international agreement between governments — 184 at present — to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species.
  • The convention entered into force in 1975 and India became the 25thparty — a state that voluntarily agrees to be bound by the Convention — in 1976.
  • States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties.
  • Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws.
  • All import, export and re-export of species covered under CITES must be authorised through a permit system.
  • Every two to three years, the Conference of the Parties meets to review the implementation of the Convention.

  • the Supreme Court has taken up the question of inaction on the part of the Union government in notifying recommendations made by the collegium, which is a flagrant violation of the law settled by the court in two cases in the 1990s.
  • In interviews to the media after his retirement, the former CJI, Justice U.U. Lalit, categorised the collegium as the “perfect” system to protect the independence of the judiciary.
  • In 2015, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court struck down constitutional amendments that Parliament had effected to create the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC).

  • In addition to ensuring an easier, comfortable, and more secure commute, safer roads also have a positive impact on the environment. In 2021, India reported 4,03,116 crashes, each of which adversely impacted the environment in various ways and in different degrees.
  • Most vehicles contain toxic metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium or hexavalent chromium, which are detrimental to the environment. Fuel and fluid leaks are seen at crash sites.
  • With the absence of widespread, systematic facilities dedicated to their proper recycling, vehicles after road crashes as well as old end-of-life automobiles are left to rot by the wayside.
  • One of the biggest factors for road crashes is speeding.
  • several governments globally have reduced speed limits to prevent crashes and lower air pollution.

  • The latest official GDP estimates show the economy’s expansion decelerated in the July-September period, dragged down by year-on-year and sequential contractions in manufacturing and mining and a broad slowdown in private consumption expenditure and government spending.
  • Policymakers can ill-afford to drop their guard as they battle to rein in growth-sapping inflation and must ensure that credit conditions remain supportive of the real economy.

  • Article 324 requires that Parliament will pass an Act about the procedure of appointment and things like that. It has not happened in the last 72 years.
  • Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act, 1991. Section 4 of that unambiguously says the CEC or an EC shall hold office for a term of six years from the date he or she assumes office.

  • India has assumed the Presidency of the grouping at a very challenging time in world politics; it will make citizens understand that India will be ‘more world-ready’ and the ‘world more India-ready’, says External Affairs Minister
  • The countrywide spread of the event would help Indian citizens to understand that as a result of the G-20, India would be “more world-ready” and the “world more India-ready”.
  • Sources said apart from the main event and preparatory conferences, the G-20 summit would also include “side events” and civil society-related events and discussions.
  • Apart from announcements in public venues and vehicles, the occasion was marked by illumination of world-famous Indian monuments such as Qutab Minar, Fort Vellore in Tamil Nadu and the Golconda Fort in Hyderabad. The Hazarduari palace in Murshidabad and the Ancient Palace in Leh are the other monuments.

Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

  • It is an index of the prevailing direction of economic trends in the manufacturing and service sectors.
  • It is an economic indicator, which is derived after monthly surveys of different companies.
  • There are two types of PMI — Manufacturing PMI and Services PMI.
    • A combined index is also made using both manufacturing PMI and services PMI.
  • Calculation of PMI:
    • It is indicated by a number from 0 to 100.
    • A print above 50 means expansion while a score below 50 denotes contraction.
    • A reading at 50 indicates no change.
    • If the previous month PMI is higher than the current month PMI, it represents that the economy is contracting.

What is a Windfall Tax?

  • Windfall taxes are designed to tax the profits a company derives from an external, sometimes unprecedented event — for instance, the energy price-rise as a result of the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
  • These are profits that cannot be attributed to something the firm actively did, like an investment strategy or an expansion of business.
  • The US Congressional Research Service (CRS) defines a windfall as an “unearned, unanticipated gain in income through no additional effort or expense”.
  • One area where such taxes have routinely been discussed is oil markets, where price fluctuation leads to volatile or erratic profits for the industry.

  • Over the past two months, a slew of U.S. multinational companies including tech giants Amazon, Meta, Intel, Twitter and financial behemoths like Citi and Morgan Stanley, announced massive layoffs, which crossed 60,000 in September and October.
  • The Indian IT services firms are among the largest employers in the organised sector and any global economic trend is bound to have an impact on their growth projections.

Q) With reference to the Manthan Platform, consider the following statements:

  1. The development of the platform was conceptualized and implemented by NITI Aayog.
  2. It was launched on India’s 76th Independence Day.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

मंथन मंच के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. मंच के विकास की परिकल्पना और कार्यान्वयन नीति आयोग द्वारा किया गया था।
  2. इसे भारत के 76वें स्वतंत्रता दिवस पर लॉन्च किया गया था।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

The Manthan platform won NSEIT the Best Tech Initiative of the Year at the Dun & Bradstreet Business Excellence Awards 2022.

  • The award was presented for building the technology infrastructure to support Manthan.
  • Manthan is a platform that promotes collaboration at scale between industry and the scientific research and development ecosystem.
  • The development of the platform was conceptualized and implemented by the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser (PSA) to the Government of India.
  • It is aimed at promoting collaboration between industry and the scientific research and development ecosystem.
  • It was launched on India’s 76th Independence Day.
  • Manthan empowers multiple stakeholders to collaborate for co-creating solutions aligned with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and our national scientific missions.

Q) With reference to the Great Indian Bustard (GIB), consider the following statements:

  1. It is the State bird of Rajasthan.
  2. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.

Which of the above statements is/are Incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ग्रेट इंडियन बस्टर्ड (GIB) के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. यह राजस्थान का राजकीय पक्षी है।
  2. इसे IUCN की रेड लिस्ट में सुभेद्य के रूप में सूचीबद्ध किया गया है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन गलत है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

  • The Great Indian Bustard, found mainly in the Indian subcontinent, is the flagship grassland species of India.
  • It is one of the largest flying birds in the world, and India’s heaviest flying bird.
  • The male bird weighs upto 12-15 kg and female bird up to 5-8 kg.

Distribution:

  • Its population of about 150 in Rajasthan accounts for 95% of its total world population.
  • They are mainly in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan, including the Desert National Park which is the natural habitat of the species.
  • Grasslands of Kutch in Gujarat which is home to second-largest bustard population in India.
  • Arid regions of Maharashtra (Solapur), Karnataka (Bellary and Haveri) and Andhra Pradesh (Kurnool)
  • It is the State bird of Rajasthan.

Conservation status:

  • Listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972,
  • Listed in Appendix I of CITES,
  • Listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Q) With reference to the Sangai Deer, consider the following statements:

  1. It is found only in Panna National Park
  2. It is listed as Vulnerable on IUCN Red List.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

संगाई हिरण के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. यह केवल पन्ना राष्ट्रीय उद्यान में पाया जाता है
  2. इसे IUCN की रेड लिस्ट में सुभेद्य के रूप में सूचीबद्ध किया गया है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. तो 1 और ही 2

The Prime Minister of India recently addressed the Manipur Sangai Festival.

  • Every year the State of Manipur celebrates the “Manipur Sangai Festival” from 21st to 30th November.
  • The objective is to showcase Manipur as a world class tourism destination.
  • The ‘Festival’ is named after the State animal, Sangai, the brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur.
  • It started in the year 2010.
  • The theme of this year’s Sangai festival is “Festival of oneness”.
  • Every edition of the festival showcases the tourism potential of the state in the field of Arts & Culture, Handloom, Handicrafts, Indigenous Sports, Cuisine and Music of the state etc.

Sangai Deer:

  • Scientific Name: Rucervus eldii.
  • Common Name: Sangai, Brow antlered deer, Dancing Deer.
  • Population: About 260 (acc. to a joint census conducted by the Forest Department in 2016).
  • Habitat and Distribution: It is found only in Keibul Lamjao National Park – the largest single mass of phumdi is in the Loktak Lake – in Manipur’s Bishnupur district.

Status:

  • State animal of Manipur.
  • Schedule-1 of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Endangered on IUCN Red List.

Q) Belgaum is part of which of the following state?

  1. Karnataka
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Gujarat
  4. Andhra Pradesh

बेलगाम निम्नलिखित में से किस राज्य का हिस्सा है?

  1. कर्नाटक
  2. तमिलनाडु
  3. गुजरात
  4. आंध्र प्रदेश

Explanation :

The Supreme Court hearing started on the long pending issue of Belagavi between Maharashtra and Karnataka.

  • The dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka over Belgaum and other border areas is a longstanding issue between the two states.

Origin of the dispute:

  • The erstwhile Bombay Presidency, a multilingual province, included the present-day Karnataka districts of Bijapur, Belgaum, Dharwar and Uttara-Kannada (previously North Kanara).
  • The Belagavi/Belgaum region at the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka comprises both Kannada and Marathi speakers.
  • In 1948, the Belgaum municipality requested that the district, having a predominantly Marathi-speaking population, be incorporated into the proposed Maharashtra state.
  • However, the States Reorganisation Act of 1956, which divided states on linguistic and administrative lines, made Belgaum a part of the then Mysore State (which was renamed Karnataka in 1973).

Q) With reference to the UNDP’s Plastic Waste Management Programme, consider the following statements:

  1. As part of the initiative, the UNDP will distribute the `Jan Dhan’ account kits to waste segregation workers.
  2. The key objective of the programme is to help move the sector from informal to formal.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

यूएनडीपी के प्लास्टिक अपशिष्ट प्रबंधन कार्यक्रम के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:

  1. पहल के हिस्से के रूप में, यूएनडीपी अपशिष्ट पृथक्करण श्रमिकों को ‘जन धन’ खाता किट वितरित करेगा।
  2. कार्यक्रम का मुख्य उद्देश्य क्षेत्र को अनौपचारिक से औपचारिक की ओर ले जाने में मदद करना है।

उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. 1 और 2 दोनों
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is helping the people working in the waste segregation industry in India to move into formal economy, by helping them access government welfare programmes.

  • As part of the initiative, the UNDP will distribute the `Jan Dhan’ account kits to waste segregation workers.
  • The opening of the `Jan Dhan’ accounts has been facilitated through the UNDP’s plastic waste management programme.
  • The waste management promotes the collection, segregation, and recycling of all plastics to move towards a circular economy for the same.
  • This is done at ‘Swachhta Kendra’ or material recovery facilities.
  • The plastic collected and processed so far has already crossed 1,38,000 metric tonnes.
  • The programme also ensures the well-being and financial inclusion of the `Safai Sathis’ or waste-pickers, by linking them to the social protection schemes.
  • According to the UN agency, a key objective of the programme is to help move the sector from informal to formal.
  • This is done by linking them to social protection schemes like the `Jan Dhan’ accounts, Aadhar cards, `Ayushman Bharat’, pension schemes, and scholarships for children, among others.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) Explore and evaluate the impact of ‘Work From Home’ on family relationships. (150 words)

पारिवारिक रिश्तों पर ‘घर से काम’ के प्रभाव का अन्वेषण और मूल्यांकन करें। (150 शब्द)

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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