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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve
Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is located in the Sawai Madhopur district of Rajasthan, India. It is situated at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill ranges and covers an area of approximately 1,334 square kilometres. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve was established as the Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955 and was later declared a national park in 1980. It was declared a Tiger Reserves in India under Project Tiger in 1973, and today it is one of the largest and most renowned tiger reserves in India.
As per the latest tiger census conducted in 2018, the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is estimated to have a population of around 71 tigers, making it one of the most important tiger habitats in the country. The reserve is also home to a variety of other wildlife species such as leopards, hyenas, sloth bears, sambar deer, and many others.
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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Location
Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is primarily characterized by its rugged terrain, which comprises a mix of hills, plateaus, and valleys. The reserve is situated at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill ranges, which offer stunning vistas of the surrounding landscape.
The reserve is dotted with several natural and man-made lakes, which are a crucial source of water for the wildlife that inhabits the region. The most prominent of these lakes are the Padam Talao, Raj Bagh Talao, and Malik Talao.
There are no significant rivers or waterfalls within the reserve, but the Banas River flows through the nearby district of Sawai Madhopur and is an important tributary of the Chambal River. The river provides a vital source of water for the region and supports a rich ecosystem of flora and fauna.
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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Map
Here is a map of the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve given below for a better understanding:
Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Fauna
Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is home to a diverse range of wildlife including predators, herbivores, reptiles, and birds. Many of these species are endemic to the Indian subcontinent and can only be found in a few select locations. Here is a list of some of the top fauna species found here.
|Important Species||Scientific Name||Interesting Facts|
|Bengal Tiger||Panthera tigris tigris||Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is known for its high density of Bengal tigers and is one of the best places in India to observe these majestic animals in their natural habitat.|
|Leopard||Panthera pardus||Leopards are also found in Ranthambore, but are more elusive than tigers and are generally harder to spot.|
|Sloth Bear||Melursus ursinus||The sloth bear is a rare and endangered species that are found in small numbers in Ranthambore.|
|Indian Striped Hyena||Hyaena hyaena||The Indian striped hyena is another elusive species that is found in the reserve.|
|Mugger Crocodile||Crocodylus palustris||The mugger crocodile is one of two crocodile species found in Ranthambore and is often seen basking on the banks of the reserve’s lakes.|
|Indian Python||Python molurus||The Indian python is one of the largest snake species found in the reserve and is often seen coiled up in the trees.|
|Indian Gazelle||Gazella bennettii||Also known as the Chinkara, the Indian Gazelle is a beautiful and graceful antelope species found in Ranthambore.|
|Indian Wild Dog||Cuon alpinus||The Indian wild dog, also known as the dhole, is a highly social and intelligent predator that is found in small numbers in reserves.|
|Indian Pangolin||Manis crassicaudata||The Indian pangolin is a critically endangered species that is hunted for its meat and scales, which are used in traditional medicine.|
|Indian Muntjac||Muntiacus muntjak||The Indian muntjac, also known as the barking deer, is a small deer species found in a reserve.|
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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Flora
The flora of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is characterized by tropical dry deciduous forests, thorn forests, grasslands, and rocky terrain. The vegetation supports a diverse range of wildlife and is of great ecological and cultural significance. Some of the most important species found here include:
|Important Species||Scientific Name||Interesting Facts|
|Dhok||Anogeissus pendula||Dhok is the dominant tree species in Ranthambore and is well adapted to the dry, arid conditions of the region. It is an important source of fodder for herbivores like spotted deer and sambar.|
|Khajur||Phoenix sylvestris||Khajur, also known as the wild date palm, is a common tree species found in the reserve. It provides important food and nesting sites for several bird species.|
|Banyan||Ficus benghalensis||Banyan trees are iconic features of the Indian landscape and can be found throughout Ranthambore. They are known for their aerial roots, which can grow down into the ground and form new trunks.|
|Peepal||Ficus religiosa||Peepal trees are considered sacred in Hinduism and are often found growing near temples and other religious sites. They provide important habitats and food for a variety of bird and insect species.|
|Mango||Mangifera indica||Mango trees are found throughout the reserve and provide important food and nesting sites for several bird species. They are also an important fruit crop in the region.|
|Ber||Ziziphus mauritiana||Ber, also known as the Indian jujube, is a small tree species that are found in reserve. Its fruit is a popular food source for several bird and mammal species.|
|Kadam||Neolamarckia cadamba||Kadam is a fast-growing tree species that are found in the reserve’s wetter areas. Its flowers are an important source of nectar for several insect species.|
|Palash||Butea monosperma||Palash, also known as the flame of the forest, is a tree species that is famous for its bright red flowers. It is an important source of food for several herbivore species.|
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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Tourism
The best time to visit Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is from October to April when the weather is pleasant and the chances of spotting wildlife are higher. The nearest airport is Jaipur Airport, which is about 160 km away, and the nearest railway station is Sawai Madhopur, which is about 11 km away. Tourists can expect to go on safaris to spot tigers and other wildlife, and can also explore the nearby Ranthambore Fort and the town of Sawai Madhopur. Other nearby tourist attractions include Jaipur city, Pushkar, and Ajmer Sharif Dargah.
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Ranthambore Tiger Reserve UPSC
Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is an important topic for UPSC as it falls under the UPSC Syllabus of Environmental Ecology and Biodiversity. The reserve’s significance lies in the fact that it is one of the few remaining habitats of the endangered Bengal Tiger, and is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. Studying Ranthambore Tiger Reserve can provide important insights into wildlife conservation, forest management, and sustainable development. Aspirants preparing for the UPSC exam can benefit from StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching and UPSC Mock Test, which offer comprehensive coverage of the topic and help candidates prepare for the exam.
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