Later Mughal Introduction
Read all about the Later Mughals.The rebirth of regional identities during the time between approximately 1707 CE and around 1761 CE (from Aurangzeb’s death to the time of the Third Battle of Panipat, where Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Maratha chiefs) revealed a sad state of affairs for the once-powerful Mughals. The Mughal court was the setting for feuds between the nobility.
When Nadir Shah imprisoned the Mughal Emperor and pillaged Delhi in around 1739 CE, the empire’s frailties were made clear. Three of Aurangzeb’s sons, Muazzam (the governor of Kabul), Muhammad Kam Baksh (the governor of Deccan), and Muhammad Azam Shah, engaged in a war of succession upon his passing in around 1707 CE (the governor of Gujarat). Muazzam won the battle, becoming Bahadur Shah I and ascending to the throne. The Later Mughals are fully explained in this article for the UPSC Examination.
Read about: List of the Mughal Emperors
Later Mughal List
This is the complete list of Later Mughal for UPSC Exam. Complete list of Later Mughal:
|Later Mughal Emperor||Time Period|
|Bahadur Shah I||1707 – 1712 CE|
|Jahandar Shah||1712 – 1713 CE|
|Furrukhsiyar||1713 – 1719 CE|
|Rafi Ul-Darjat||1719 CE|
|Rafi Ud-Daulat||1719 CE|
|Muhammad Ibrahim||1720 CE|
|Muhammad Shah||1719 – 1748 CE|
|Ahmad Shah Bahadur||1748 – 1754 CE|
|Alamgir II||1754 – 1759 CE|
|Shah Jahan III||1759 – 1760 CE|
|Shah Alam II||1760 – 1806 CE|
|Akbar Shah II||1806 – 1837 CE|
|Bahadur Shah II||1837 – 1857 CE|
Read about: Decline of Mughal Empire
Later Mughal Emperor
1. Later Mughal Bahadur Shah I
He had a lenient attitude toward the aristocracy, giving them the lands of their choice and elevating them. The state’s finances got worse as a result of this. Additionally, it is thought that Zulfiqar Khan, the wazir, held the real power. He showed tolerance for Hindus despite never banning jizya.The independence of Marwar and Mewar was recognized during his rule. However, the compromise was failed to persuade these nations to recommit to supporting the Mughal cause.
2. Later Mughal Jahandar Shah
After Bahadur Shah’s death, the Mughals’ political system underwent a radical change in which the nobility assumed the role of “king makers” and treated the monarchs as little more than puppets. The first puppet emperor in Mughal India was Jahandar Shah. Zulfiqar Khan (wazir), who held the executive reins, offered him assistance.
Zulfiqar Khan established cordial ties with a number of Hindu chieftains, including the Rajputs, Marathas, and others. Jizya was abolished, and Jai Singh of Amber and Ajit Singh of the Marwar were given the titles of Mirza Raj Sawai and Maharaja, respectively. He also gave Shahu the Sardeshmukhi and the Deccan Chauth. However, Banda Bahadur and the Sikhs continued to face the traditional policies of repression.
3. Later Mughal Farrukh Siyar
Around 1713 CE, Farrukh Siyar defeated his brother Jahandar Shah at Agra. The Saiyyad brothers, sometimes known as the “kingmakers,” Saiyyad Abdullah Khan (Wazir) and Hussain Ali Khan, helped him gain the throne (Mir Bakshi). Zulfiqar Khan was murdered by the Saiyyad brothers, who then installed themselves in powerful positions.
The Saiyyad brothers attempted to reach an understanding with the Marathas, Jats, and Rajputs and were successful in putting down the Sikh uprising. The Sikh leader Banda Bahadur was put to death at this time.
4. Later Mughal Rafi-us-Darajat
Rafi-us-Darajat was installed as the monarch by the Saiyyad brothers. In actuality, the Saiyyad brothers installed three young princes on the throne within a short eight-month period. He died within four months as a result of binge drinking. Nikusiyar, the grandson of Aurangzeb, rebelled during his rule and took the throne at Agra with the help of Mitrasen (a Nagar Brahmin).
5. Later Mughal Rafi-us-Daula
Nikusiyar was imprisoned by Hussain Ali Khan (the Saiyyad brother), who invaded Agra. Shah Jahan II was the title given to Rafi-us-Daula. He reigned for a little time before passing away from consumption (Tuberculosis).
6. Later Mughal Muhammad Shah
Jahan Shah’s brother, who enjoyed dancing and was a skilled Kathak dancer. With the aid of Nizam-ul-Mulk, Chin Qilich Khan, and his father’s cousin Muhammad Amin Khan, he was able to drive the Saiyyad brothers from their position in around 1720. Itmad-ud-Daula designated Muhammad Amir Khan, who assassinated Hussain Ali Khan, as wazir.
But independent nations did come into existence during his rule, including the Deccan under Nizam-ul-Mulk, Awadh under Saadat Khan, and Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa under Murshid Quli Khan. When Nadir Shah invaded India, captured the Mughal emperor, and pillaged Delhi in the 1739 CE, the Mughal Empire’s frailties were made clear.
7. Later Mughal Ahmad Shah
He was the son of Kudsiya Begum and Muhammad Shah Rangeela (a dancing girl). Afghanistan’s king Ahmad Shah Abdali frequently assaulted Delhi, and as a result, Multan and Punjab were given to him. Both Malwa and Bundelkhand were taken by the Marathas. His wazir, Imad-ul-Mulk, blinded him and put him in Salimgarh.
8. Later Mughal Alamgir Ⅱ
He was Imad-ul-choice Mulk’s to succeed Ahmad Shah as king and was the second son of Jahandar Shah. Ahmad Shah Abdali’s repeated invasions had to be endured. During his reign, the renowned Battle of Plassey (23 June, about 1757 CE) was fought. The British East India Company was able to take control of Bengal thanks to the battle at Plassey. Imad-ul-Mulk, his wazir, also killed him.
9. Later Mughal Shah Alam Ⅱ
The Mughal empire was so weak under his rule that the Persian proverb “Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dili ta Palam,” which means “The kingdom of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam,” came to be used. Palam is a suburb of Delhi. He escaped to Awadh as a result of his dispute with the wazir (c. 1761 – 1764 CE). When the Marathas regained control and welcomed him to the capital, he returned to Delhi.
During his rule, the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali fought in the third Battle of Panipat (about 1761 CE). Around 1764 CE, the British East India Company’s soldiers, commanded by Hector Munro, engaged the combined armies of Mir Qasim (the Nawab of Bengal), Shuja-ud-Daula (the Nawab of Awadh), and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II in the Battle of Buxar.
10. Later Mughal Akbar Ⅱ
He was Shah Alam II’s son and only remained safe because the British had taken Delhi somewhere around the year 1803 CE. Ram Mohan Roy received the honorific “Raja” from him. He was a brilliant poet who is credited with founding the festival honouring Muslim and Hindu brotherhood, Phool Walon Ki Sair.
11. Bahadur Shah Zafar
He served as the Mughal Empire’s final emperor. He was a skilled poet, going by the name Zafar (victory). He took part in the 1857 uprising. He was sent to Rangoon (Burma) after the uprising was put down, where he passed away in 1862 CE.
Later Mughal UPSC
Because later Mughal emperors were unable to militarily impose its laws throughout the empires, numerous regional governors began to exert their power. They eventually attained autonomous independence. Many of the Mughals’ conquered kingdoms simultaneously proclaimed their independence.
Additionally, a few fresh regional organisations consolidated and grew in prominence. For UPSC preparation, this article provides comprehensive information on the Later Mughals, including a list of Later Mughals and a history of their reigns.