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Kaziranga National Park, History, Species, Significance and Threats

Kaziranga National Park

In India, one of the most significant wildlife sanctuaries is the Kaziranga National Park. One of India’s most well-known national parks is renowned for housing one-horned rhinos. It serves as an important bird sanctuary. An overview of Kaziranga National Park is provided in this piece. The government designates certain regions as national parks in order to protect the local ecosystem. National parks and animal refuges play an essential role in the UPSC Syllabus‘ Environment & Ecology and Biodiversity sections.

Kaziranga National Park History

The Indian rhinoceros and their habitat were the primary targets of protection when Kaziranga National Park was first created as a “Reserve Forest” in 1905. Kaziranga National Park was established as a Game Reserve in 1916, and it later changed its status to a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950. Kaziranga National Park was established as a national park on January 1, 1974. It received the UNESCO “World Heritage Site” designation in 1985. Following a decline in the tiger population, the Indian government authorized the creation of the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve in August 2006.

Kaziranga National Park Feature

One of India’s earliest reserves is known as Kaziranga National Park. It can be found in the Indian state of Assam’s regions of Nagaon, Sonitpur, and Golaghat. Because Kaziranga is situated in the Brahmaputra Rover floodplain, the earth there is abundant in alluvial deposits. Small rivers run through the park from east to west and drain into the Brahmaputra River.

The biggest secured area on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River, Kaziranga National Park has a land area of 1030 km2. Kaziranga National Park is currently overseen by the Assam State Government’s environment department.

Also Read: Jim Corbett National Park

Kaziranga National Park Important Species

One-horned rhinoceros are among Kaziranga National Park’s top draws. Aside from that, the major attractions of this national park are the elephant Asiatic water buffalo and the royal Bengal tier. According to the 2018 census, Kaziranga National Park is home to 2,413 rhinoceros in total and roughly 1,100 elephants. Nine out of the 14 types of primates on the Indian subcontinent are found in Kaziranga National Park.

The number of one-horned rhinos in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is the highest in the entire globe. The second-highest concentration of rhinos in Assam is found in Kaziranga National Park. There are about 35 different mammal species in Kaziranga National Park, and 15 of them are classified in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. With 103 tigers, Kaziranga National Park ranks third in India behind Jim Corbett and Bandipur National Park.

Wetland Bird Census 2019

96 different kinds of wetland birds have been found in Kaziranga National Park. It ranks among the greatest totals for Indian wildlife reserves. Over time, the survey has noted a change in the types and numbers of birds. The northern pintail variety and the bar-headed goose both have significant shares. The park’s Bagori, Kohora, and Burapahar have all been surveyed. The Eurasian wigeon, gadwall, little cormorant, northern lapwing, spot-billed pelican, and ruddy shelduck are additional species found in this area.

Kaziranga National Park Floral Diversity

You can find Indian gooseberries, cotton trees, tall eggplant grass, dese broadleaf woods, alluvial savanna woodlands, and marshlands here. There are countless smaller bodies of water in Kaziranga as well. Because of the frequent flooding, wetland areas, deciduous woods, and grasslands can also be seen.

Kaziranga National Park and One-Horned Rhinoceros

The IUCN Red List categorizes the one-horned rhinoceros as Vulnerable. The preservation of these rhinos is now a top concern. Kaziranga National Park is an important refuge because it is home to half of the world’s rhinos. A solitary black horn that is 9 to 25 inches long and a grey-brown hide with folds in the skin help identify one-horned rhinos. These one-horned rhinos feed on grasses, tree limbs, fruit leaves, and aquatic plants.

Kaziranga National Park and Flood Impact

Floods play an important part in the maintenance of the tiger reserve’s ecological system. The yearly feature of Kaziranga National Park is floods. Flooding promotes soil formation and silt deposition while also assisting in the upkeep of flora. The floods’ ability to regenerate aids in maintaining the environment and reviving Kaziranga’s water bodies. Fish also use floodwater as a breeding site. However, the annual flooding of the Brahmaputra River poses a significant challenge for the Kaziranga National Park.

Kaziranga National Park Significance

Two-thirds of the world’s giant one-horned rhinoceroses reside there (IUCN Status- Vulnerable). The name Karbi, a woman who governed here in antiquity, is adopted as the title Kaziranga. Alluvial deposits from the Brahmaputra and its tributaries created Kaziranga’s entire territory.

Kaziranga National Park Threats

Due to the numerous water bodies in Kaziranga National Park, it floods annually when it rains nonstop. Due to the fact that the powerful Brahmaputra passes through these regions, the eastern and northern portions of the park are the most impacted. One of the main problems during the summer rains is soil erosion.

Another significant issue and danger to the Kaziranga National Park is the killing of rhinos by poachers. Another worrying issue is the expanding human populace near the park. The rapid urbanization of rhino habitats is problematic because it can result in a number of harmful activities, such as market contraction and farming expansion.

Kaziranga National Park UPSC

Since Kaziranga National Park is a hot subject right now, questions about it are consistently included in the UPSC Exam. This text provides enough details about Kaziranga National Park to be helpful during the planning stage. Candidates can go to the official website of StudyIQ UPSC online coaching to know more about UPSC Examination. Students can go for UPSC Mock Test to enhance their preparations for their upcoming examinations.

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Kaziranga National Park FAQs

What is Kaziranga National Park famous for?

Kaziranga National Park famous for the Indian one-horned rhinoceros.

What is the best time to visit Kaziranga?

The best time to visit Kaziranga is from the month of November to April.

Is Kaziranga National Park in Guwahati?

It is located in Assam at a distance of 194 km from Guwahati, the Kaziranga National Park is a world heritage site and arguably India's finest wildlife sanctuary.

Which month Kaziranga National Park open?

Kaziranga National Park in Assam is an abode of the one-horned rhinoceros. This park welcomes visitors from 1st November till 30th April every year.

What are the big 5 of Kaziranga?

Kaziranga National Park is famous for the Big Five namely the Rhinoceros (2,401 nos), Tiger (116 nos), Elephant (1,165 nos), Asiatic Wild Buffalo and the Eastern Swamp Deer (1,148 nos).


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