The Industrial Revolution was a period of tremendous automation and innovation that began in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th and early 19th centuries and eventually spread to the majority of the world. Coal and iron exploitation dominated the British Industrial Revolution.
The Second Industrial Revolution, sometimes known as the American Industrial Revolution, started in the 1870s and lasted until the end of World War II. The mechanization of industries and agriculture occurred during this time, as well as the development of new modes of transportation like steamships, cars, and aeroplanes. In this article for UPSC preparation, the candidate can find all the information about the Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Revolution History
A large number of the technological advancements made during the Industrial Revolution were also British inventions. Britain’s chilly, damp environment made it the perfect place to raise sheep, giving the country a long history of producing textiles like wool, linen, and cotton. The textile business was in every way a “cottage industry” before the industrial revolution because the labor was done by lone spinners, weavers, and dyers in smaller workshops and residences.
Weaving cloth and spinning yarn became considerably easier and faster with the invention of technologies like the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, and power loom, while also requiring less labour from humans.
The expanding demand for cloth both domestically and internationally could now be satisfied by the effective and automated means of manufacturing. British colonies abroad served as a captive market for the products the country was now making. The iron industry incorporated some of its own developments along with the textile sector.
One of these breakthroughs was the technique for melting iron using coke, a substance produced by burning coal. When compared to the conventional process of employing charcoal, this one was less expensive and generated materials of great quality. In addition to meeting the demands brought on by the several conflicts that Britain fought abroad, such as the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), the quickly rising steel and iron production also aided in the development of the railway sector.
First Industrial Revolution
Around 1750–1760 saw the start of the First Industrial Revolution in England, which lasted until somewhere between 1820 and 1840. One of history’s most notable turning moments occurred at this time.
Industrial Revolution Causes
The capitalist economies evolved alongside the industrial revolution. To boost productivity and profitability, under capitalism, business owners (capitalists) started to centrally organise workers into factories and implement a division of labour. When compared to the guild and craft systems that came before it, capitalist production encouraged technological advancement and innovation at a never-before-seen pace.
The effects of European Imperialism played a significant role in the Industrial Revolution’s development. Imperialism as a concept was associated with the expansion of industrialization even if it was not a direct cause of the start of the Industrial Revolution.
Mining for materials like coal, which were essential to the industrialization processes, was the second major factor in the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. For instance, Britain was the first country to industrialize and the nation possessed abundant coal resources. The results of the Agricultural Revolution were the final contributing factor to the Industrial Revolution. The first major factor was the development of capitalism as an economic philosophy, which aided rich people in starting their own firms. The spread of European empire around the globe was the next significant factor.
Industrial Revolution Effect
Employment opportunities increased as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Compared to what people were paid as farmers, factory wages were higher. As factories grew, more managers and workers were needed to run them, which increased the number of positions available and overall earnings.
Due to the proximity of most factories and large corporations to cities, a huge number of people moved there in pursuit of employment, frequently outnumbering the supply of housing. This resulted in important advancements in urban planning.
Along with increased innovation, higher levels of motivation and education produced a number of ground-breaking innovations that are still in use today. The sewing machine, X-ray, light bulb, calculator, and anesthetic are some examples of these inventions. It raised wealth, boosted output, and raised living standards. It promoted emigration to cities, which increased the population there and created more job opportunities.
The nation witnessed the first usage of a combustible engine, an incandescent light bulb, and a sophisticated assembly line thanks to the developments of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution altered people’s working conditions, their access to technologies, and frequently their living arrangements. Although living circumstances for employees remained appalling, it made life more bearable for many, which eventually fuelled the rise of labour unions that resulted in better working conditions and fair compensation.
Industrial Revolution Impact
The Industrial Revolution saw many developments, but the speed at which they happened created many problems. There was a lack of food produced as workers left their farms to work in industries for greater earnings.
Urban pollution increased as a result of the sudden rise in factory construction. Pollution wasn’t limited to the factories; as more people moved into the cities, the resources there were overrun, and living conditions deteriorated.
In some places, sewage overflowed into the streets, and manufacturers dumped factory waste into nearby waterways. Water sources weren’t monitored and safeguarded like they are now. As a result, laws and regulations were passed to safeguard the populace.
As a result of the Industrial Revolution’s motivation to boost earnings, factory working conditions declined. Working long hours for little pay with few breaks became the standard. Child labour was a serious problem. Many of the manufacturing workers experienced health problems, which sparked the labor movement across the U.S.
Industrial Revolution UPSC
Industrial Revolutions brought massive economic and social changes that helped to transform from an agriculturally stable place to modern industrial society. The place where the industrial revolution began and the growth it experienced showed phenomenal success.
This achievement was mainly due to its simplified weaving process in the textile industry, leading to less time consumption to create the final output. The advancements in technology were beneficial for the economic development and organization of labor by providing employment opportunities. This article has complete details about the Industrial Revolution for Preparation of UPSC Exam.