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Difference Between Early and Later Vedic Periods
Difference Between Early and Later Vedic Periods: The ancient Indian civilization is a rich tapestry woven with the threads of various historical periods. Among these, the Vedic period holds a significant place, encompassing both the early and later stages. It was a time of profound transformation, where societal, religious, and cultural developments laid the groundwork for the shaping of Indian civilization. This article delves into the Difference Between Early and Later Vedic Periods, shedding light on the distinct characteristics and transitions that marked each era.
Early Vedic Period
The Early Vedic Period is believed to have existed around 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE. During this period, ancient Indian society was in a formative stage, and the Vedic culture began to emerge. For complete details about Early Vedic Period, check this link.
Later Vedic Period
The Later Vedic Period followed the Early Vedic Period, estimated to be around 1000 BCE to 600 BCE. During this phase, the Vedic traditions continued to develop, and new elements were incorporated into the society and culture. For complete details about Later Vedic Period, check this link.
Key Difference Between Early and Later Vedic Periods
In the table below we have provided the Key Differences between Early Vedic Period and Later Vedic Period in detail:
|Dimension||Early Vedic Period||Later Vedic Period|
|Society and Culture||In the Early Vedic Period, society was largely semi-nomadic and pastoral, with people engaging in cattle rearing and agriculture. Rural settlements were common, and tribes were the primary social units. People lived in simple thatched huts and followed a pastoral lifestyle.||The Later Vedic Period witnessed a transition from the pastoral lifestyle to more settled agricultural communities. Urban centres started to emerge, and the economy saw advancements in agriculture and trade. Social stratification became more pronounced with the emergence of new classes, such as the ruling Kshatriyas and the priestly Brahmins.|
|Political Organization||During the Early Vedic Period, society was primarily organized around tribes, and each tribe had its chieftain or Rajan who acted as the leader. These chieftains governed their respective tribes and settled disputes.||In the Later Vedic Period, there was a shift from tribal organization to the establishment of monarchical and centralized kingdoms. Powerful monarchs emerged, and the concept of kingship became prevalent. Kingdoms like Kuru, Panchala, and Videha gained prominence.|
|Religious Texts||The Early Vedic Period is associated with the composition of the Rigveda, the oldest of the four Vedas. The Rigveda contains hymns dedicated to various natural forces and deities, reflecting the early religious beliefs and practices of the Vedic people.||The Later Vedic Period saw the composition of three additional Vedas: Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda. The Brahmanas, which are commentaries on the rituals and ceremonies, were also developed during this time.|
|Rituals and Sacrifices||Rituals during the Early Vedic Period were relatively simple, involving basic offerings and animal sacrifices. These rituals were performed to appease the gods and seek their blessings for prosperity and well-being.||The Later Vedic Period witnessed the development of more elaborate rituals and sacrificial ceremonies. Rituals became more complex and systematic, requiring detailed procedures and precise chanting of hymns. Sacrifices became more sophisticated and demanded a deeper understanding of the rituals.|
|Deities||In the Early Vedic Period, the Vedic people worshipped various natural forces and celestial deities. Deities like Indra (god of rain and thunder), Agni (god of fire), Varuna (god of cosmic order), and others were revered.||The Later Vedic Period saw the emergence of new deities like Vishnu, Shiva, and Devi. These deities played significant roles in the evolving religious beliefs and practices. Vishnu became associated with the concept of preservation, while Shiva was associated with destruction and regeneration. Devi, the divine feminine, was also venerated during this period.|
|Philosophy and Ideas||Early Vedic philosophy focused on ritualism and sacrificial practices as a means to interact with the divine forces. The emphasis was on seeking material and worldly gains through performing rituals and pleasing the gods.||The Later Vedic Period marked the emergence of philosophical ideas through the development of Upanishads. Upanishads explored deeper spiritual concepts, including the nature of the self (Atman) and the ultimate reality (Brahman). The focus shifted from external rituals to inner reflection and contemplation.|
|Social Hierarchy||The social structure of the Early Vedic Period was relatively egalitarian, with tribes forming the basis of society. People were grouped based on kinship ties, and there were no rigid social divisions.||In the Later Vedic Period, the social hierarchy became more defined with the emergence of the Varna system. Society was classified into four Varnas: Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaishyas (merchants and traders), and Shudras (labourers and artisans). This Varna system laid the foundation for the later caste system in India.|
|Language||Early Vedic literature was composed in Vedic Sanskrit, an archaic form of Sanskrit. The Rigveda, in particular, contains hymns written in this ancient language.||The Later Vedic Period witnessed the evolution of Vedic Sanskrit into Classical Sanskrit, which became the dominant language for literary and intellectual expression. Classical Sanskrit was used for composing epic texts like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.|
|Art and Architecture||In the Early Vedic Period, art and architecture were relatively simple. Pottery and basic dwellings were common, reflecting the nomadic lifestyle of the Vedic people.||The Later Vedic Period saw the development of more sophisticated art and architecture. Urban centres flourished, and buildings were constructed using more advanced techniques. Temples and stupas were built, and the use of bricks and stones in architecture became prevalent.|
|Trade and Commerce||During the Early Vedic Period, trade and commerce were limited, and a barter system was commonly used for exchange. The economy was primarily based on agriculture and cattle rearing.||In the Later Vedic Period, trade and commerce expanded, and urban centres became hubs of economic activities. The use of coins as a medium of exchange became common, leading to the growth of trade networks and commercial activities.|
|Literary Works||The Early Vedic Period is known for the composition of the Vedas, particularly the Rigveda. The Vedas were initially passed down orally and later transcribed into written texts.||The Later Vedic Period saw the development of Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads. These philosophical texts provided deeper insights into the Vedic teachings and laid the foundation for later philosophical schools in India.|
Read about: Sangam Period
Difference Between Early and Later Vedic Periods UPSC
The difference between Early and Later Vedic Periods is crucial for the UPSC examination as it aligns with the UPSC Syllabus on ancient Indian history and culture. Understanding these periods, with keywords like Vedic Sanskrit, Brahmanas, Upanishads, urban centres, Varna system, trade, and commerce, is essential for aspirants. Aspirants can prepare such topics through UPSC Online Coaching and take UPSC Mock Test to check their level of understanding.
Read about: Rig Vedic Period