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Current Affairs 19th April 2024 for UPSC Prelims Exam

Mt. Raung Volcano

Context: The Indonesian authorities issued a tsunami alert after the volcanic eruptions at Ruang Mountain.

About Mount Raung 

Ruang Mountain

Location East Java, Indonesia
Elevation 3,344 meters (10,974 feet)
Caldera 2 kilometers wide, 500 meters deep, surrounded by a grayish rim
Activity One of the most active volcanoes on Java.

It has over sixty recorded eruptions dating back to the late 16th century. 

May be an image of map and text that says "ndowoso OMt Mt Raung Kalipuro Banyuwangi Buleleng Gerokgak Genteng Srono Negara Pulukan Kubu Pulau PulauBali Bali BALI Kesilir Gradjagan TamanNasional Taman Nasional Alas AlasPurwo Purwo Karangasem Gianyar Denpasar Ngurah Rai International Airport"


  • An archipelago of 270 million people, has 120 active volcanoes.
  • It is prone to volcanic activity because it sits along the “Ring of Fire,” a horseshoe-shaped series of seismic fault lines around the Pacific Ocean.

Cruise Missiles

Context: DRDO successfully test fired an indigenous long range subsonic cruise missile.

More in News

  • The performance of the Indigenous Technology Cruise Missile (ITCM) was monitored by several range sensors like radar, Electro Optical Tracking System (EOTS) and telemetry deployed by ITR.
  • The flight of the missile was also monitored from the Su-30-Mk-I aircraft of the Indian Air Force.
  • Developed by:  Bengaluru-based DRDO laboratory Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE).
  • This successful flight test has also established the reliable performance of the indigenous propulsion system developed by Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE).

Difference Between Cruise And Ballistic Missiles

Aspect Cruise Missile Ballistic Missile
Flight Path Low-level, terrain-hugging, within the atmosphere High arcing, parabolic trajectory, exits and re-enters atmosphere
Propulsion Jet engine, sustained propulsion throughout flight Rocket boosters, propelled initially, coasts without propulsion mid-flight
Guidance Systems Advanced guidance with GPS, inertial, TERCOM or image-based systems Inertial, sometimes with star sighting or GPS, terminal phase guidance
Speed and Altitude Generally subsonic or supersonic, flies at lower altitudes Hypersonic speeds, reaches extremely high altitudes
Defensive Countermeasures Hard to detect due to low altitude and potential for stealth technology Easier to detect at launch, difficult interception due to speed and trajectory
Purpose and Use Precision strikes against specific targets requiring controlled flight paths Delivery of strategic payloads, including nuclear, across continents
Examples (India) BrahMos, Nirbhay Prithvi I, Prithvi II, Agni I, Agni II and Dhanush missiles.

Foreign Direct Investment

Context: India’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI), or overseas direct investment, declined by 39 percent to $28.64 billion in FY24.

More in News

  • India’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) witnessed a significant decline of 39% to $28.64 billion in the fiscal year ending March 2024.
  • The decrease in OFDI is attributed to uncertain global economic conditions impacting investment opportunities for Indian companies.

May be an image of text that says "FY2024 INDIA' S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (amount in Sb Sbillion) FY2023 Equity 9.61 Loans 5.24 7.73 19.13 Guarantee issued 13.78 TOTAL TOTALFINANCIALCOMMITMENT Source:RBI RBI 20.09 28.64 46.96"

Outward FDI Trends

  • In the fiscal year ending March 2023, outward FDI amounted to $46.96 billion, according to RBI data.
  • The data includes commitments through both the automatic and approval routes, with equity commitments accounting for a significant portion.


Factors Influencing Outward FDI

  • The uncertain global economic environment likely contributed to fewer overseas investment opportunities in FY2024.
  • Experts suggest that the dip in outward FDI was also influenced by the absence of large overseas acquisitions by Indian companies.
  • The decrease in overseas guarantees issued by Indian companies further indicates subdued investment activity amidst global uncertainty.


Aspects Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Definition Investment into a country by establishing or acquiring a lasting interest in enterprises.
Ownership and Control Provides control over the company in which investment is made.
Purpose To have a significant degree of influence or control over a company and often involves management.
Size of Investment Involves larger, long-term commitments.
Investment Stability More stable, long-term investment.
Impact on Economy Has a direct impact on employment, technology transfer, and long-term economic development.
Convertibility of Currency Can involve convertibility issues depending on the country’s capital flow regulations.
Influence on Corporate Governance Significant, FDI investors often play a role in the management and decision-making processes.
Examples A foreign car manufacturer setting up a production plant in India


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