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Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
CAMPA Fund: In the world of environmental protection and conservation, there’s a powerful force at work known as the Compensatory Afforestation and Management Authority. This authority plays a crucial role in balancing the impact of activities that might affect our forests and natural spaces. It’s all about ensuring that when some land is used for certain purposes, an equal or even better piece of land is set aside for nature. This helps keep our environment healthy and diverse, and it’s an important step towards taking care of the planet for generations to come. In this article, we will explore the Compensatory Afforestation and Management Authority and CAMPA Fund in detail.
What is Compensatory Afforestation?
Compensatory afforestation is a practice where new trees and plants are grown to replace the ones that were cut down or removed from a forest or land. This is done to balance the loss of trees and biodiversity that happens due to activities like construction, mining, or other development projects. The goal is to ensure that the environment remains healthy and the ecosystem is protected even when trees are removed. Compensatory afforestation helps maintain a balance between human needs and nature by planting new trees in different areas to make up for the ones that were removed.
Read about: Kyoto Protocol
What is CAMPA?
CAMPA, which stands for Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority, is an important authority in India that takes care of money and plans to make up for the forests that get used up for various reasons. CAMPA has been established under the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, of 2016, which started working in 2018.
India has forests that cover about 23% of the country’s land, and these forests are home to different kinds of plants and animals. People also live near these forests and use them for their needs.
Sometimes, projects like building dams, mining, or industries need to use forest land. But when this happens, it can harm nature. So, before using forest land, the people behind these projects need permission from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). If they get permission, they also have to make up for the lost forests by giving money for planting new trees and fixing the environment. This is where CAMPA comes in.
There was a bit of confusion about how to do this compensatory afforestation properly, so some organizations talked to the Supreme Court about it. The Supreme Court decided that there should be a special group called CAMPA to manage this money and make sure the planting of trees and fixing the environment is done well.
Read about: Stockholm Convention
Goals of CAMPA
CAMPA has some main goals given below:
- Promoting Afforestation: CAMPA wants to make sure that when forests are used for other things, new trees are planted somewhere else to make up for it.
- Helping States: CAMPA gives advice and assistance to different states about how to do this afforestation work properly.
- Monitoring and Recommending: CAMPA checks the plans and work of each state’s CAMPA. They give ideas based on what they see and help solve problems.
- Resolving Issues: If there are problems between states or with the central government, CAMPA helps sort them out.
In each state, there’s a “State CAMPA” that gets the money and makes sure it’s used correctly. They use this money to do things like planting trees, protecting forests, taking care of wildlife, and making the environment better. They also make sure the forest department becomes better at its job by training its officials.
Read about: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
The CAMPA Funds, known as Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority Funds, are a crucial part of taking care of our forests in India. These funds help make up for the loss of forests and the good things they do for us when they are used for things like building or mining. These funds are used to plant new trees, make the forests better, and fix any harm done to the environment.
Sources of CAMPA Funds
CAMPA funds are collected from various sources to support afforestation, reforestation, and conservation activities. Some of the key sources of CAMPA funds include:
When forest land is diverted for non-forest purposes like infrastructure projects, industries, or mining, the entities responsible for this diversion pay compensatory levies. These levies are a form of compensation for the environmental impact of using forest land for non-forest activities.
Additional Compensatory Levies
In addition to compensatory levies, there might be additional charges based on the extent of forest land diverted. These charges contribute to the CAMPA funds.
Net Present Value (NPV)
NPV is a value assigned to the standing trees and vegetation on the diverted forest land. This value represents the ecological services provided by the forest. Industries or projects that divert forest land pay this value to compensate for the loss of these services.
Penal Compensatory Levies
In case of violations or non-compliance with environmental regulations, penal compensatory levies are imposed. These fines contribute to the CAMPA funds.
The funds collected are deposited in banks, and the interest earned on these deposits also becomes a part of the CAMPA funds.
Other Amounts Recovered
Any other monetary amounts collected from industries, projects, or entities that have used forest land for non-forest purposes also contribute to the CAMPA funds.
Read about: Climate Change
Uses of CAMPA Funds
The CAMPA funds are used for various important tasks, including:
- Compensatory Afforestation: This means planting new trees to make up for the ones that were cut down.
- Improving Forest Quality: Making the forests healthier and better by taking care of the trees and plants.
- Helping Biodiversity: Making sure different kinds of plants and animals thrive in the forests.
- Protecting Wildlife Habitat: Creating a safe home for animals living in these forests.
- Preventing Forest Fires: Taking steps to stop fires from damaging the forests.
- Soil and Water Conservation: Protecting the soil and water in and around the forests.
Read about: Wildlife Protection Act 1972
Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority UPSC
Understanding the Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) is crucial for UPSC aspirants as it aligns with the UPSC Syllabus, particularly topics related to environmental governance, forest conservation, and sustainable development. CAMPA’s role in managing funds for compensatory afforestation resonates with the environmental and ecological aspects of the UPSC examination. Candidates can seek guidance on such topics from UPSC Online Coaching and attempt UPSC Mock Test to enhance their understanding of contemporary environmental policies and conservation strategies.
Read about: Vienna Convention