Anamalai Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve is a protected area situated in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states in South India. It was established in the year 2007 and covers an area of around 958 square kilometers. The reserve is known for its rich biodiversity and is home to several endangered species such as the Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, Indian leopard, and lion-tailed macaque. As per the recent census, the reserve is said to have a tiger population of around 30-35. Anamalai Tiger Reserve is also home to several tribal communities that have been living in the region for centuries and coexist with the wildlife.
Read about: Tiger Reserves in India
Anamalai Tiger Reserve Landscape
Anamalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Western Ghats which is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of India. The reserve is known for its diverse topography which includes hills, mountains, valleys, and plateaus. Anamudi is the highest peak in the region with an elevation of 2,695 meters. The reserve is also home to several rivers such as Aliyar, Uppar, and Nirar that originate from the mountains and flow through the valleys.
The reserve experiences a tropical climate with heavy rainfall during the monsoon season, which lasts from June to September. The winter months from November to February are relatively dry and cool with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 25°C. The topography and climate of the reserve make it an ideal habitat for a wide range of plant and animal species.
Read about: Panna Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve Map
Anamalai Tiger Reserve Fauna
Anamalai Tiger Reserve boasts several significant faunal species, and some of these species, along with their distinct characteristics, are:
|S. No.||Important Species||Scientific Name||Unique Features|
|1.||Bengal Tiger||Panthera tigris tigris||Largest predator in the reserve; nocturnal and solitary|
|2.||Indian Elephant||Elephas maximus indicus||Largest mammal in the reserve; herbivore; migratory|
|3.||Indian Leopard||Panthera pardus fusca||Agile climber; nocturnal and solitary|
|4.||Indian Gaur||Bos gaurus||Largest wild cattle species in the reserve; herbivore|
|5.||Nilgiri Tahr||Nilgiritragus hylocrius||Endemic to Western Ghats; found in high altitudes; herbivore|
|6.||Lion-tailed Macaque||Macaca silenus||Endemic to Western Ghats; diurnal and arboreal|
|7.||Indian Pangolin||Manis crassicaudata||Nocturnal; feeds on ants and termites; unique armor-like scales|
|8.||Malabar Giant Squirrel||Ratufa indica||Diurnal; arboreal; distinctive black and white coloration|
|9.||Indian Wild Dog||Cuon alpinus||Also known as Dhole; hunts in packs; endangered|
|10.||Spotted Deer||Axis axis||Herbivore; also known as Chital|
Read about: Nagarhole Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve Flora
Anamalai Tiger Reserve boasts of diverse flora, with numerous species of trees, shrubs and herbs found in the region. The reserve is home to many endemic and endangered plant species. Some of the important varieties include:
|Important Species||Scientific Name||Unique Features|
|Indian rosewood||Dalbergia latifolia||Used for making musical instruments and furniture|
|Teak||Tectona grandis||Highly durable timber used for construction and furniture|
|Sandalwood||Santalum album||Valuable timber and used in Ayurvedic medicines|
|Cinnamon||Cinnamomum verum||Used as a spice and for medicinal purposes|
|Nutmeg||Myristica fragrans||Used as a spice and for medicinal purposes|
|Black pepper||Piper nigrum||Used as a spice and for medicinal purposes|
|Cardamom||Elettaria cardamomum||Used as a spice and for medicinal purposes|
|Shola trees||Various species||Important for the ecology of the region and provide habitat for many species|
Read about: Pench Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve Tourism
Anamalai Tiger Reserve is a popular tourist destination in South India. Tourists can expect to see a wide range of flora and fauna, including tigers, elephants, leopards, gaurs, and many bird species. The reserve offers many activities such as trekking, nature walks, and jeep safaris for tourists to explore the wilderness.
The nearest airport to Anamalai Tiger Reserve is Coimbatore International Airport, which is about 80 km away. The nearest railway station is Pollachi, which is 35 km away from the reserve. From there, one can take a taxi or bus to reach the reserve.
The best time to visit Anamalai Tiger Reserve is between October and March. The weather during these months is pleasant, and the wildlife is easily spotted. During the monsoon season, from June to September, the reserve is closed to visitors due to safety concerns.
There are several nearby tourist attractions, including the Aliyar Dam, Monkey Falls, and the Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary. The picturesque hill station of Valparai, which is known for its tea plantations and scenic beauty, is also located near the reserve.
Read about: Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve UPSC
Anamalai Tiger Reserve is an important topic in the UPSC Syllabus under the Environment and Ecology section. Candidates are expected to have a comprehensive understanding of the reserve’s location, flora and fauna, and conservation efforts. To prepare for the UPSC exam, candidates can refer to various online resources and UPSC Mock Test platforms such as StudyIQ UPSC for effective exam preparation and evaluation of their preparation level.
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